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Journal of Chinese Society for Corrosion and protection  2023, Vol. 43 Issue (6): 1165-1177    DOI: 10.11902/1005.4537.2022.326
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Corrosion Behavior and Sealing Technologies of Bronze
ZHAO Lu1, LI Qian1,2,3(), ZHAO Tianliang1,4()
1.School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
2.Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
3.School of Materials Science and Engineering & National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
4.Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Steels, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China
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ZHAO Lu, LI Qian, ZHAO Tianliang. Corrosion Behavior and Sealing Technologies of Bronze. Journal of Chinese Society for Corrosion and protection, 2023, 43(6): 1165-1177.

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Bronze relics are precious historical and cultural heritage of mankind, as the bearer of important historical information about the human civilization, but their corrosion-prone characteristics make them face a serious threat of rust and eventually fester. Studying the corrosion and destruction behavior of bronzes and correspondingly adopting effective sealing technologies can not only protect the long-term inheritance of bronzes, but also retain their historical research and artistic appreciation value. At present, the research on the corrosion behavior and sealing technologies of bronzes is still lacking in system. There are still many scientific and technical problems that need to be solved urgently in the effect of multi-factor synergistic competition on the evolution characteristics of bronze rust layers in the state of being buried or stored, the diagnostic methods and quantitative standards of bronze diseases, the sealing technologies of bronzes and the construction of databases related to bronze corrosion and sealing. This paper focuses on the key scientific issues in the whole process of bronze excavation, extraction, storage and protection, reviews the current main research results in the field of bronze corrosion behavior and sealing technologies, and the corrosion mechanism of bronzes. The influences of inherent factors related with bronze such as chemical composition and microstructure, as well as the external environmental factors such as Cl- concentration, humidity and temperature on the corrosion behavior of bronze are outlined. The existing methods for the diagnosis and classification of bronzes are analyzed, and the existing temporary and long-term sealing technologies for bronzes are summarized. At last, the future development trend of bronze corrosion and sealing is prospected in this paper, and we hope to guide and promote the development of bronze corrosion and sealing technology by constructing a comprehensive standard database of environment-bronze-diseases-sealing technologies.

Key words:  bronzes      corrosion mechanism      influence factors      disease diagnosis      sealing technologies     
Received:  21 October 2022      32134.14.1005.4537.2022.326
ZTFLH:  TB304  
Fund: National Key Research and Development Project of China(2019YFC1520104);Sichuan Science and Technology Program(2022YFS0558)
Corresponding Authors:  LI Qian, E-mail:;
ZHAO Tianliang, E-mail:

URL:     OR

Fig.1  Cross sectional image of pitting corrosion of bronze[11]
Fig.2  Cross sectional images of Cu4Sn/Cu6Sn (a) and Cu metal (b) exposed at Brest for 5 a as well as the elemental mapping (c-f) corresponding to Fig.2a[17]
Fig.3  SEM observation of as-prepared sample (a) and samples exposed to visible light (b) and exposed to UV light after 6 d of immersion in simulated natural edaphic aqueous solution (c)[27]
Fig.4  2D and 3D reconstructed CT images in the inner surface of the falcon coffin[52]
Fig.5  The neutron radiography of the flanged axe from Zalaszabar (a), PGAA measurement area (b), area of former destructive sampling (c), the 3D surface plot of the panel (d) [53]
Freshly polished bronze
1Slight discolorationa. Light orange
b. Dark orange
2Moderate discolorationa. Fuchsia
b. Light purple
c. Multi-colored with lavender blue or silver, or both, and covered with fuchsia
d. Silver
e. Brass or golden yellow
3Severe discolorationa. Multi-colored magenta overlaid on brass
b. Multicolor with red and green display (malachite green), but not gray
4Corrosiona. Transparent black, dark gray or brown with only malachite green
b. Graphite black or matt black
c. Shiny black or jet black shiny black
Table 1  Standard color plate classification for copper corrosion
Fig.6  Structural formula of menthol (a) and super depth of field 3D video microscope photos of painted paint leather before and after menthol treatment: before treatment (b), crystallization of menthol on painted leather upon volatilization (c), crystallization growth (d), after menthol volatilized completely (e)[56]
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