中国腐蚀与防护学报, 2017, 37(3): 195-206
doi: 10.11902/1005.4537.2016.039
铁氧化菌引起的钢铁材料腐蚀研究进展

Research Progress of Corrosion of Steels Induced by Iron Oxidizing Bacteria
刘宏伟, 刘宏芳

摘要:

系统总结了好氧生物膜的形成和发展机制,在此基础上着重介绍了铁氧化菌的代谢机制和对金属材料的腐蚀机理,分析了好氧微生物代谢产生的胞外聚合物在金属腐蚀过程中起到的作用。详细介绍了由典型的好氧铁氧化菌和厌氧硫酸盐还原菌引起的微生物协同腐蚀研究进展。总结了油田普遍采用的腐蚀防护方法以及最新研究进展,为后续铁氧化菌腐蚀与防护提供参考。

关键词: 铁氧化菌 ; 微生物腐蚀 ; 生物膜 ; 胞外聚合物 ; 协同腐蚀

Abstract:

This paper systematically summarizes the formation and evolution of the iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB) related biofilm and the relevant mechanism, and then introduces the metabolic process of IOB and the corrosion process induced by IOB with emphasis on the role in the corrosion process of their metabolite of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). The paper also reviews the research progress of synergic corrosion induced by typical aerobic IOB and anaerobic sulfate reducting bacteria (SRB). In addition, the paper further summarizes corrosion prevention methods applied in oilfields and the corresponding research progress, which may provide reference for the corrosion control for oilfield.

Key words: iron oxidizing bacteria ; microbiologically influenced corrosion ; biofilm ; extracellular polymeric substance ; synergic corrosion

金属材料腐蚀造成的损失约占GDP的2%~4%,金属材料造成的经济损失有很大一部分是由于微生物腐蚀 (MIC) 引起的,统计表明,MIC造成的经济损失约占总经济损失的约20%[1,2]。MIC是指由于微生物的自身生命活动直接加速金属材料腐蚀或者通过其代谢产物间接地加速金属材料腐蚀的现象[3,4]。MIC普遍存在于各种自然环境中,如土壤、油田系统、海水体系、城市水网等,是引起工程材料失效的一个主要原因[5,6]

MIC的发生与生物膜的形成以及其代谢产物密切相关,微生物通过生物膜在金属材料表面附着、生长,可以直接加速金属材料的腐蚀过程[7,8]。生物膜主要包含微生物细胞体、微生物代谢产物和腐蚀产物,同时也包含有一定量的无机矿化物沉淀和少量从介质中吸附的有机物[9,10]。微生物的代谢产物也叫胞外聚合物 (EPS),主要成分是糖类、蛋白质、脂类和少量的核酸和DNA[11]。铁氧化菌 (IOB) 是典型的好氧微生物,也是对材料腐蚀贡献较大的腐蚀性微生物之一[12,13]。微生物通过在生物膜下富集、生长可以直接加速基体试样的腐蚀,研究[14]表明,生物膜中固着的微生物比浮游的微生物浓度高2个数量级以上,在较纯的培养体系中甚至高出5~6个数量级。好氧的铁氧化菌倾向于在生物膜中层和表层富集,通过氧化Fe2+得到Fe3+获得能量生长,直接加速阳极腐蚀过程[15]。实际工况条件下,微生物是共生的,因此多种微生物共存条件下的MIC研究尤为重要,能够更好地揭示实际工况条件的MIC机理[16,17]

腐蚀是一个世界性难题,但是若能利用现有防腐技术可减少1/3的损失,因此腐蚀的防护研究尤为重要。当前油气田系统中控制腐蚀最有效也是最常用的方法是添加缓蚀剂,缓蚀剂在管线表面吸附成膜进而抑制试样的腐蚀[18,19]。但是,近年来缓蚀剂对MIC的影响研究报道较少[20],通过研究缓蚀剂和微生物共存条件下缓蚀剂的缓蚀过程和缓蚀机理,可以更加有针对性地使用缓蚀剂,提高缓蚀剂的使用效率[21]。对控制MIC最常用的方法是添加杀菌剂,直接杀死管线介质中的微生物,进而控制MIC[22,23]。但是,一方面,杀菌剂的大量使用会增加环境的负荷,带来很多环境问题,另一方面杀菌剂对浮游微生物较为有效,很难杀死生物膜中的微生物[24]。开发出新的控制MIC的方法,显得尤为迫切和必要。磁场作为一种无损、环境友好的方法,有希望应用于MIC控制[25]

近年来IOB引起的材料腐蚀失效报道较多,但比较系统的相关报道仍然较少。本文结合目前作者的研究工作,比较系统地介绍了IOB腐蚀过程和腐蚀机理,以及MIC的控制方法研究进展,为后续IOB腐蚀与防护研究提供参考。

1 铁氧化菌腐蚀机理
1.1 生物膜的形成过程和对金属腐蚀的作用

金属材料表面的生物膜主要是由于微生物在材料表面特定的活性位点上附着,进一步在微生物自身生命活动及其与基体材料作用下形成一种复杂混合物[26-28]。生物膜的形成是一个高度的自发并且伴随微生物的生长和消亡以及环境不断变化的动态过程[29]。本课题组研究了铁氧化菌在培养基体系中典型生物膜随时间的变化。图1中,培养初期 (2 d) 可以明显观察到IOB细胞体在碳钢表面的附着和吸附,这时微生物的代谢活性较低,产生的腐蚀产物较少。随着培养时间的延长,IOB活性增强,其腐蚀产物也增多 (图1b)。培养7 d后 (图1c),此时IOB活性较强,细胞分裂和代谢比较旺盛,可以观察到试样表面产生大量的腐蚀产物,腐蚀产物中包裹着大量的IOB细胞体。随着培养时间的进一步延长,21 d后 (图1d),试样腐蚀产物增多,此时由于营养物质的大量消耗,IOB代谢活性降低,IOB进入衰亡期,大量的IOB死亡,因此生物膜中观察不到IOB细胞体的存在,此时生物膜中的有机物含量降低,无机物的含量增加。致密生物膜的形成在一定程度上可以起到屏障作用,阻碍腐蚀性物质对基体的侵蚀,进一步抑制基体碳钢的腐蚀;成熟的生物膜会发生部分脱落,加速试样的腐蚀[30]

图1 碳钢在含有铁氧化菌的培养介质中培养不同时间获得的生物膜形貌图

Fig.1 Change of biofilm of IOB on the carbon steel surface with different incubation time: (a) 2 d, (b) 4 d, (c) 7 d, (d) 21 d

在微生物代谢活动影响下,生物膜的形成和发展的一般过程如图2所示[5],其形成过程一般经历如下几个阶段[31-33]:(1) 无机离子的矿化作用以及有机大分子的吸附作用,在碳钢表面形成一层厚度约为20~80 nm的吸附膜,吸附膜的形成可以起到活性位点的作用,促进微生物在碳钢基体表面吸附;(2) 浮游微生物向材料表面运移;(3) 浮游微生物附着于材料表面的活性位点,浮游微生物转变为固着微生物;(4) 固着微生物在材料表面快速生长,同时通过自身的代谢活动产生大量代谢产物,生物膜开始形成;(5) 随着微生物代谢产物和腐蚀产物的逐级增多,成熟稳定生物膜形成;(6) 生物膜成分复杂,随着时间的推移,生物膜稳定性降低,后期会发生部分脱落。生物膜呈凝胶状,一方面生物膜可以对膜内微生物起到保护作用,另一方面生物膜也可以富集营养物质促进膜内固着微生物的生长代谢[34,35]。不同时期形成的生物膜对材料的腐蚀起着不同的作用,生成的生物膜越厚越容易剥落,而不均匀的生物膜将引起材料的局部腐蚀,在生物环境中形成的生物膜比在非生物环境中形成的腐蚀产物膜更加紧密地黏附于金属的表面[36,37]

实际复杂环境体系中,单一微生物是不可能存在的,在自然环境中,相邻位置细胞之间通过长时间接触可能产生生理相互作用,导致微生物的协同作用[27]。Sun等[38]通过模拟给水管网中体系,研究了微生物群落与腐蚀产物转化的关系,结果表明,生物膜中包含有SRB、硫氧化菌 (SOB) 和IOB时,试样的腐蚀加速,腐蚀产物增多分层,但是铁细菌通过抑制Fe的溶解进而抑制碳钢的腐蚀。厌氧的SRB和好氧的IOB是比较典型的协同腐蚀性微生物菌群,可以协同加速金属材料的腐蚀[39,40]。一方面SRB可以利用在碳钢表面形成的生物膜创造一个微厌氧环境,促进生物膜内SRB生长,进而促进SRB对碳钢的腐蚀。另一方面,好氧微生物与SRB之间通过协同作用加剧碳钢的腐蚀,好氧微生物通过消耗环境中的氧,为SRB的生长创造条件,促进厌氧生物膜的形成[41,42]。介质中的铁离子浓度在生物膜的形成过程中发挥着关键作用,研究[43]表明较低的Fe含量可以促进微生物DNA的释放和生物膜的形成。

图2 生物膜的形成和发展示意图[5]

Fig.2 Schematic process of biofilm formation[5]

生物膜下金属材料的腐蚀以点蚀为主,点蚀的形成与生物膜的不均一性密切相关[44,45]。厌氧的SRB倾向于在生物膜的底层生长,SRB可以直接从Fe0获得电子,SRB生物膜下的试样以点蚀为主,SRB也是造成油田管线腐蚀穿孔的一个主要原因[46,47]。好氧的IOB也是造成金属材料点蚀的一个主要腐蚀性微生物[48]。本课题组研究了Q235钢在IOB培养介质中培养21 d后的腐蚀状况,见图3,空白条件下试样的腐蚀以均匀腐蚀为主,试样腐蚀较轻 (图3a),IOB存在条件下 (图3b),试样产生了明显的点蚀坑,试样腐蚀加速。另外,研究发现微生物培养介质的不同会显著影响微生物对腐蚀过程的贡献。生物膜中群落结构的变化也会影响金属材料的腐蚀过程,Teng等[49]研究表明,培养7 d生物膜中铁细菌占据主导地位,试样腐蚀加速。

图3 Q235钢在IOB培养介质中培养21 d后去除腐蚀产物后的腐蚀形貌图

Fig.3 Corrosion morphologies of Q235 carbon steel after removing corrosion products after 21 d incubation in IOB culture medium: (a) control, (b) IOB

1.2 EPS对腐蚀影响

微生物代谢产生的EPS能够在基体表面吸附成膜,改变界面的物理化学性质[45]。EPS是生物膜的主要组成成分,包括荚膜、粘液层、及其他表面物质,其有机部分主要由多聚糖、蛋白质和少量DNA、脂和腐植酸组成,其无机部分约占总量的10%~20%[50]。细胞中的高聚物如丙酮酸或糖醛酸中荷电基团的存在也能显著地影响EPS的物理性质,如EPS的强度和粘性,使得界面/表面性质发生变化。EPS是带负电荷、高度含水的凝胶状基质,能较长时间固存微生物,利于形成稳定的互生微菌落[51]。EPS中多糖类物质如β-1,6键糖胺聚糖体是生物膜形成所必须的粘结素,起粘结剂的作用[52]

EPS组成、结构和电荷分布直接影响着金属材料的腐蚀过程。EPS的组分和结构与微生物培养的周期有关,Jin等[53]研究表明,EPS中蛋白质和多糖的含量随着培养周期的变化而变化,但是含有的主要官能团类似,提取的不同培养周期的EPS对生铁的腐蚀都具有抑制作用,高浓度的EPS的腐蚀抑制效率降低。EPS对Fe的保护机理是:EPS可以在生铁表面形成一层保护膜,抑制氧的阴极去极化过程,EPS浓度过高时,其对金属离子的络合作用增强,促进了阳极溶解,从而EPS的腐蚀抑制效率降低。EPS和金属离子之间弱的静电作用力具有加速金属腐蚀的作用得到很多研究证实[26,54],EPS中的C=O和C—(O,N) 起到促进阳极电化学反应活性位点的作用。EPS中的某些活性组分具有一定的氧化能力,通过自身的还原过程可以促进铁的氧化过程,从而可以加速试样的腐蚀过程[55]。介质中Fe的含量对EPS的产量会有显著的影响,反过来EPS又会影响Fe的阳极溶解过程。

Jin等[56]研究发现,适量的Fe含量 (0.06 mg/L) 可以增加EPS的产量和促进生物膜的形成,EPS中部分特征官能团在络合铁离子的过程中可以起到电子传递中间体的作用。这也是首次研究发现EPS可以起到电子传递中间体的作用,为揭示EPS促进Fe的阳极溶解过程提供了理论支撑。Van Beek等[57]研究发现,IOB代谢产生的EPS可以吸附Fe2+和Fe(OH)3,进而间接的促进IOB氧化Fe2+获得能量。IOB代谢产生EPS中的多糖类化合物可以起到吸附剂的作用促进Fe2+的氧化[58]。徐洁等[59]研究了铁细菌EPS中的糖类对碳钢腐蚀的影响,结果表明,EPS中的糖类对碳钢的腐蚀具有一定的抑制作用,但是其抑制效果和铁细菌的氧化作用相比较小。

图4介绍了好氧生物膜下EPS在整个腐蚀过程中发挥的作用以及EPS在腐蚀过程中起到电子传递中间体的作用[60]。EPS对金属离子具有很强的络合能力,在O2存在的条件下,阳极Fe0溶解产生的Fe2+被氧化成Fe3+,进而与EPS络合沉淀在碳钢基体上 (图4a)。生物膜下的EPS还可以起到电子传递中间体的作用,将阳极Fe0溶解释放的电子传递给氧,促进氧的去极化过程,加速腐蚀产物的形成和腐蚀过程 (图4b)。

图4 好氧生物膜下由EPS络合Fe3+引起的腐蚀过程和通过Fe-EPS络合物直接电子的传递过程[60]

Fig.4 Corrosion process in the presence of an oxygenated biofilm, owing to Fe3+binding by EPS (a) and electrons are transferred directly from the Fe0 to Fe-EPS (b)[60]

1.3 IOB腐蚀机理

IOB是一类以O2作为最终电子受体通过氧化Fe2+至Fe3+获得能量生长的微生物[61],在IOB生物酶催化条件下,其对Fe2+的氧化速率远远高于普通的化学氧化[62]。所有的无机能量源中,对于IOB生理代谢来说,Fe2+的氧化过程中最终产生的Gibbs自由能 (△G0) 最低,以反应 (1) 为例,产生的Gibbs自由能为-109 kJ/mol,△G0越小,说明自发的反应越容易进行,这也说明IOB对Fe2+的代谢是一个高度自发的过程[63,64]。IOB从反应 (2) 获得的能量是29 kJ/mol,如果Fe3+在近中性pH值条件下自发的继续反应,生成Fe(OH)3,IOB获得的能量会增加一倍[39]。另外,IOB在O2受扩散控制的氧化还原界面上Fe2+的氧化过程发挥着关键作用,在低氧区,IOB氧化1 mol Fe2+获得的能量将增加约-90 kJ,O作为最终的电子受体在整个IOB代谢过程中也起着非常关键的作用[64]

F e 2 + + 0.25 O 2 + 2.5 H 2 O Fe ( OH ) 3 + 2 H + (1)

F e 2 + + 0.25 O 2 + H + F e 3 + + 0.5 H 2 O (2)

O的浓度在5~10 μmol/L时,IOB就可以生长的很好[65]。IOB广泛存在于油气田、弱酸及近中性富铁地下水、深海等环境体系中。IOB是造成油田管线MIC穿孔的主要腐蚀性微生物,以江苏油田为例,在部分油井中IOB的含量可以达到107 CUF/mL,近年来油田也从只注重SRB腐蚀逐渐认识到IOB腐蚀在管线MIC过程起到的作用,IOB造成的管线腐蚀也得到了越来越多的重视。

反应 (3)~(9) 代表了IOB对金属材料的整个腐蚀电化学过程,IOB从反应 (4) 获得能量生长,以O2的去极化反应 (反应 (5)) 作为阴极反应[12]。IOB对金属材料的主要腐蚀产物铁氧化合物,如FeOOH,Fe2O3和Fe3O4,主要反应过程见反应 (6)~(9)[66]。在整个IOB腐蚀过程中,金属材料表面同时作为腐蚀反应的阳极和阴极,因为Fe0的氧化通常伴随着金属表面发生的还原反应。Fe2+与Fe0不同,前者存在于静止的碳钢基体内,而后者可以扩散到流动相当中。这就意味着在IOB腐蚀过程中,Fe2+的氧化可能发生在金属表面或者IOB生物膜内。IOB通过代谢形成生物膜,可以影响腐蚀阳极和阴极反应,也可以改变钢铁表面的物理化学性质,同时也会对钢铁表面的涂层产生破坏影响[67]

阳极反应: Fe F e 2 + + 2 e - (3)

F e 3 + F e 3 + + e - (4)

阴极反应:

1 2 O 2 + H 2 O + 2 e - 2 O H - (5)

F e 2 + + 2 O H - Fe ( OH ) 2 (6)

2 Fe ( OH ) 2 + 1 / 2 O 2 2 FeOOH + H 2 O (7)

3 Fe ( OH ) 2 + 1 / 2 O 2 F e 3 O 4 + 3 H 2 O (8)

2 FeOOH F e 2 O 3 + H 2 O (9)

IOB对碳钢典型的点蚀机理是由IOB腐蚀产物铁氧化合物引起的缝隙腐蚀,具体反应过程和路线见图5[68,69]图5a是在好氧条件下由铁氧化合物引起的缝隙腐蚀机理图,铁氧化合物膜下碳钢基底会形成很多小的阳极活性位点,阳极Fe0失去电子转移到阴极O2,氧的去极化过程会生产OH-,进而会产生铁氧化合物,铁氧化合物的形成又进一步促进阳极的溶解,从而会加速点蚀的形成。IOB的主要腐蚀产物是铁氧化合物,如果IOB存在条件下,IOB从Fe的氧化获得能量,会促进氧的去极化过程,加速点蚀的形成过程。IOB形成的点蚀机理目前还没有SRB腐蚀机理研究的透彻,研究者提出和证实的IOB点蚀机理并不多,这一方面还有待进一步加强研究,以期利用目前先进的分子生物技术及微电极技术,从微观上揭示IOB形成点蚀的过程,从而为更好地防护IOB腐蚀提供理论支撑。

图5 由Fe(OH)3沉淀形成的点蚀机理和铁氧化菌缝隙腐蚀机理示意图[68, 69]

Fig.5 Iron reaction pathways of pitting potentially caused by oxygen and Fe(OH)3 precipitation induced crevice corrosion (a) and carbon steel in bacterial inoculum (b)[68,69]

2 微生物的协同腐蚀研究进展

自然环境中,单一的微生物菌落群是很难存在的,多种微生物在同一环境中通过协同代谢达到共生[70]。微生物对金属材料腐蚀性的强弱以及生物膜内微生物的种群变化对整个金属材料的腐蚀电化学过程起到至关重要的作用。厌氧的SRB和好氧的IOB是目前公认的两大腐蚀性微生物,围绕着SRB和IOB以及SRB或IOB与其他微生物协同加速或抑制金属材料腐蚀的研究报道较多[71,72]。李松梅等[71]研究表明,IOB和氧化硫硫杆菌可以协同加速Q235钢的均匀腐蚀,混合体系中氧化硫硫杆菌的存在可以抑制试样的局部腐蚀,整个腐蚀过程与试样表面形成的生物膜的致密性密切相关。假单胞菌的存在可以抑制IOB的腐蚀过程,段冶等[73]对Q235钢在假单胞菌和IOB混合作用下的腐蚀行为研究表明,混合体系中试样的腐蚀过程受到抑制,试样的腐蚀速率远小于单菌体系,这与混合体系中形成的生物膜滞后于单菌体系形成的生物膜密切相关,另外混合体系中形成的生物膜更为致密起到了屏障作用。顾彩香等[74]研究了SRB和需钠弧菌混合条件下对304不锈钢的腐蚀行为,结果表明SRB和需钠弧菌协同促进生长,促进了生物膜的形成,加速产生了大量的代谢产物,促进了不锈钢钝化膜的溶解,进而促进了不锈钢的点蚀扩展。

油田管线内壁生物膜内以及海水介质中结构钢表面生物膜内经常发现SRB和IOB共存,二者共同存在条件下的腐蚀行为和机理研究具有非常好的代表性,与实际情况更为相符,因此二者共存对腐蚀贡献研究引起很多研究者重视[75,76]

IOB在有氧条件下,首先会代谢产生大量的铁氧化合物,如FeOOH,Fe2O3和Fe3O4等,同时也会分泌大量的EPS[77]。在含氧介质中,IOB优先代谢生长,IOB形成的生物膜将会为固着SRB形成一个厌氧环境,促进生物膜下SRB生长,这也是SRB在有氧条件下一个自我保护的方式[78]。生物膜下缺少有机碳 (产生能量的电子供体) 条件下,饥饿状态下的SRB可以直接从Fe0获得电子进而还原SO42-,这也会加速生物膜下的点蚀形成过程[79],这也能够很好地解释油田管线因为混合MIC引起的穿孔行为。Xu等[40]研究表明,炼油厂冷却水体系中SRB和IOB共存条件下提高了316L不锈钢的腐蚀速率,加速了316L不锈钢点蚀的扩展。戚欣[80]研究了舟山海域实海暴露Q235钢锈层内微生物生长与Q235钢腐蚀速率间的关系,结果表明,锈层内固着的微生物量随海水温度的增加而增加,锈层内的微生物以SRB和IOB为主,而且SRB存在于内锈层中,IOB存在于外锈层中,锈层内微生物的存在明显地加速了试样的腐蚀过程。

本文作者研究了油田模拟水中SRB和IOB共存条件下对碳钢的腐蚀行为,为了更好地模拟实际环境体系,严格控制介质中O的含量[12]。结果表明,SRB和IOB共存条件下试样的均匀腐蚀受到抑制,但是局部腐蚀最为严重,在整个腐蚀过程中好氧的IOB优先代谢产生大量的腐蚀产物和EPS,为SRB创造了一个厌氧环境,促进了膜下SRB的生长,而且整个试样的腐蚀过程中SRB的腐蚀占据主导地位。介质中少量O的存在对整个腐蚀过程起着关键作用。

3 MIC防护方法

由于生物膜的保护作用,生物膜中固着的微生物很难被彻底清除,尤其是厌氧的微生物。生物膜中的微生物能够促进基体材料发生严重的局部腐蚀现象,因此控制生物膜中微生物的活性对MIC的控制具有重要作用[81,82]

3.1 杀菌剂

油田现场微生物的控制主要采用化学杀菌剂的方法,油田常用的杀菌剂包括氧化型杀菌剂和非氧化型杀菌剂[83]。常用的氧化型杀菌剂有Cl2、稳定性ClO2、NaClO、三氯异三聚氰酸、嗅氯二甲基海因等,氧化型杀菌剂可以与微生物细胞内的酶发生氧化作用,进而破坏微生物细胞,杀死微生物[84]。常用的非氧化型杀菌剂有季铵盐型杀菌剂、季鏻盐型杀菌剂、杂环化合物、醛类化合物、含氰基化合物等,以及复合杀菌剂[85,86]。但是大量化学杀菌剂的投加必然给环境造成二次污染,增加环境负荷,给环境保护带来挑战[87]。李辉辉等[88]研究发现,SS317NC型杀菌剂能够抑制IOB和SRB的活性,可以有效提高碳钢的耐蚀性。为了减少杀菌剂对环境造成的二次污染,环境友好型杀菌剂的开发和应用得到很多研究者的重视,环境友好型杀菌剂可以在环境介质中被分解为无毒的物质,从而不会对环境造成破坏。本课题组[89]合成了一种2,2-二溴-3-腈基丙胺 (DBNPA) 杀菌剂,DBNPA的杀菌实验表明,其最低有效杀菌浓度是30 mg/L,远低于其他常用的化学杀菌剂,且该杀菌剂可以在环境介质中分解为对环境无害的CO2和NH3等。

长时间的使用杀菌剂会使微生物对很多杀菌剂具有耐药性,且其代谢产物的存在也能够降低杀菌剂的效果。杀菌剂可以和其它技术耦合联用,在降低杀菌剂剂量的同时取得较好的杀菌效果。其中最常见的就是杀菌剂增效剂[90]。常用的杀菌剂增效剂有螯和剂、表面活性剂和醇类[91]。杀菌剂增效剂主要通过提高杀菌剂的跨生物膜和细胞膜扩散,帮助破坏细菌的细胞膜来起到增强杀菌剂的杀菌效果[92]

因为生物膜的保护作用,选用可以驱散生物膜的生物信号分子D-氨基酸为杀菌剂的增效剂,提高常用杀菌剂的渗透能力,增加杀菌剂对生物膜的剥离能力,也是降低生物膜下MIC的有效措施之一[93]。D-氨基酸作为杀菌剂增效剂可以在降低杀菌剂浓度的同时,极大地增强杀菌剂对生物膜中固着微生物的抑制作用。Xu等[94,95]研究表明,D-蛋氨酸可以提高生物膜的分散性,进而将固着的SRB细胞体转换成游离态,进而与杀菌剂起到协同作用,使杀菌剂在较低浓度就能取得较好的杀菌效果;D-酪氨酸可以与杀菌剂协同促进SRB生物膜的运移,进而也能使杀菌剂在较低浓度就能取得较好的杀菌效果。到目前为止,关于针对性的应用于抑制IOB的杀菌剂增效剂的报道还较少。

3.2 缓蚀剂

缓蚀剂是指在腐蚀性介质中少量添加就能够显著降低金属材料腐蚀速率的物质,添加缓蚀剂是目前油田工业最常用也是最有效的控制金属腐蚀的方法[96]。按照缓蚀剂对电化学阴阳极腐蚀的影响,可以将其分为阳极型缓蚀剂、阴极型缓蚀剂和混合型缓蚀剂;如果按照缓蚀剂的组成和性质又可将其分为无机型缓蚀剂、有机型缓蚀剂以及聚合物类缓蚀剂等。油气田工业,目前研究最多和应用最为广泛的缓蚀剂是有机型缓蚀剂。有机型缓蚀剂上的极性基团含有的杂原子通常是电负性较大的O,N,S,P等原子,这些杂原子中的孤对电子可以与Fe的d空轨道形成配位键,进而使缓蚀剂吸附于金属表面,有机型缓蚀剂含有的非极性基团,也叫疏水基团,可以在金属表面形成一层疏水膜,阻挡腐蚀性离子对金属的侵蚀和腐蚀过程中的电荷和物质转移过程。

缓蚀剂在无微生物存在条件下的研究报道较多,咪唑啉及其衍生物是目前应用与控制CO2腐蚀最常用的缓蚀剂之一。Zeng等[18]研究了硫脲基咪唑啉类缓蚀剂在动态条件下对弯管处材料的缓蚀行为,结果表明该缓蚀剂是一种阳极型缓蚀剂,缓蚀剂在弯管线外壁的缓蚀效率要高于内壁。胺类和一些有机酸也是常用的CO2缓蚀剂,十二胺和月桂酸也是其中比较典型的代表。Lv等[97]研究了十二胺在碳钢表面的吸附行为及缓蚀机理,结果表明,溶液的pH值对十二胺的吸附和缓蚀机理起主导作用,当pH值为6.9时,十二胺能够比较紧密地吸附在碳钢表面,显著地抑制腐蚀阴阳极反应,具有较好的缓蚀效果。

缓蚀剂在MIC环境中的缓蚀行为和缓蚀机理研究的报道较少。Chen等[98]研究了银杏提取物对碳钢的缓蚀行为以及抗MIC行为,结果表明,该提取物具有较高的缓蚀效率,同时对IOB和SRB等具有较好的抗菌特性。本文作者[3,99]研究了饱和CO2体系中SRB和咪唑啉以及十二胺共存条件下的缓蚀行为,结果表明,咪唑啉可以抑制SRB的生长,浸泡10 d后咪唑啉缓蚀剂的缓蚀效率可以达到94.4%,缓蚀效率较好,咪唑啉的含量降低为原始含量的87.5%,红外光谱分析表明咪唑啉并不能够被SRB分解和代谢,咪唑啉在该环境体系中缓蚀效率具有长效性。十二胺在含有SRB的饱和CO2体系中短期具有较好的缓蚀效果,十二胺浓度为100 mg/L时,缓蚀率可以达到85.2%,十二胺对SRB具有一定的毒性作用,可以显著抑制SRB的生长。月桂酸和硫脲在含有SRB的饱和CO2体系中的缓蚀效果较差,月桂酸和硫脲可以作为SRB的营养物质促进SRB的生长,因此月桂酸和硫脲不能够很好地吸附在金属表面,从而具有较低的缓蚀效率[100]。同时具有杀菌效果和缓蚀效果的缓蚀杀菌剂也可以应用于控制MIC,Moradi等[101]报道了一种含氯缓蚀杀菌剂,由于该物质含有N,S和O杂原子使其能够在金属表面吸附成膜从而能够起到缓蚀剂的作用。本课题组研究了咪唑啉、月桂酸和十二胺在IOB存在条件下对碳钢的缓蚀作用,结果表明月桂酸可以特异性的阻碍IOB在金属表面的吸附,从而具有很好的缓蚀效果,但是月桂酸并不会对浮游IOB产生影响,咪唑啉仅可以部分抑制IOB在金属表面的附着和生物膜的形成,因此咪唑啉在此体系中虽然具有缓蚀效果但是缓蚀率较低,十二胺在该环境体系中完全没有任何缓蚀效果。

油田工业缓蚀剂的使用仍然是最有效和最廉价的控制腐蚀的方法,研发出能够控制MIC的缓蚀剂仍然具有较好的应用前景,开发出同时具有杀菌和缓蚀效果的环境友好型缓蚀杀菌剂也是一个很好的选择,该类型的缓蚀剂具有双重效果,有无微生物缓蚀效果都会很好,因此应用前景巨大,但是这方面的报道并不多。

3.3 磁场

磁场会显著影响微生物或者细胞的代谢活性,Strašák等[102]研究了2.7~10 mT的磁场强度对大肠杆菌及其氧化还原活性的影响,结果表明磁处理减少了细菌菌落形成单位,并随着处理时间的延长,细菌的氧化还原能力不断减弱,结合细菌生长动力学研究可见,磁场对大肠杆菌的作用是直接杀死了部分细菌,而不是抑制细菌生长繁殖。张小云等[103]研究表明恒定磁场对原生动物细胞分裂的影响,不仅取决于强度,也与磁作用时间长短有关。Kohno等[104]研究表明强度在30~100 mT的恒定磁场对厌氧条件下的变形球菌和葡萄球菌产生了明显的抑制作用,而在有氧条件下抑制作用不明显。

磁场对电化学系统的作用主要是电解质溶液中离子在Lorentz力作用下,在垂直于电流方向上运动加快,显著增加了电化学过程中物质传质速率[105];而在水平方向,磁场的作用不会影响电化学过程,但是却直接影响电解质溶液中离子扩散[106]。由于各种生化反应过程基本上都与氧化还原反应有关,而磁场存在直接影响了电子和离子的转移,且生物体内部分酶和活性蛋白均含有顺磁性的过渡金属元素活性中心 (如Mn,Fe和Co等),磁场的存在改变了酶和蛋白质的活性。此外,磁场存在可以影响自由基的运动,改变生物膜离子选择通透性。目前有关恒定磁场对微生物系统的影响研究得出了有争议的结论,产生较有影响的作用机理为:细胞质膜理论、离子量子状态干涉理论以及自由基理论。

磁场对于金属材料的腐蚀过程影响研究已经进行了很多年,Sueptitz等[107]研究表明磁场对碳钢腐蚀的影响与测试介质的pH值密切相关,高的磁通量密度和梯度可以抑制质量传递过程,进而降低金属的腐蚀速率。磁场对MIC的影响研究报道较少。MIC与生物膜的选择透过性及膜中酶的催化作用密切相关,微生物能够影响基体材料腐蚀电化学反应,且这种生化反应过程基本上都与氧化还原反应有关,而磁场的存在直接影响了电子和离子的转移、自由基的运动,改变生物膜内离子的选择通透性,也会对微生物的新陈代谢产生影响[108]。对于MIC,研究[109]表明,在低频静磁场的作用下,SRB的活性受到抑制,生物膜下局部腐蚀减缓。本课题组[25]研究表明,在弱磁场条件下,Q235碳钢试样表面的生物膜形成滞后,生物膜均匀致密,并且紧密地黏附在金属表面,去除腐蚀产物后,基体比较平整,腐蚀较空白轻。Zheng等[110]研究了弱磁场条件下SRB对不锈钢的点蚀行为,表明弱磁场条件下的SRB菌量明显降低,点蚀坑数量和大小明显减少,磁场显著抑制了SRB对不锈钢的腐蚀。强磁场会促进管线内壁结垢和微生物吸附,促进基体材料的腐蚀破坏[111]。在弱磁场强度范围内 (小于10 mT),磁场的存在可使微生物的活性变小,生长速率变缓,细菌发生变异,变异菌无鞭毛,以杆状形式存在,磁场只能起到抑制细菌生长的作用,而不能直接杀死细菌[25]

磁场对于IOB引起的MIC影响的报道较少,本文作者结合课题组先前的研究成果,研究了磁场对IOB腐蚀的影响,结果表明,磁场强度为76 mT时,试样的均匀腐蚀和点蚀均得到抑制[66]。磁场对于MIC影响研究表明,磁场作为一种无损廉价的科学手段,在油田现场进行MIC控制方面具有较好的应用前景。

4 总结和展望

本文重点综述了IOB对金属材料腐蚀研究现状,及目前普遍采用的MIC控制方法。近年来,随着科学技术的进步,特别是生物技术、微电极技术以及微区分析技术的发展,能够从微观上揭示MIC机理,为MIC防护提供更好的理论支撑。近年来针对厌氧SRB的腐蚀过程和腐蚀机理认识已经有了长足的进步,虽然关于好氧IOB对金属材料的腐蚀行为及腐蚀机理的研究已取得了一些进展,但是针对IOB腐蚀的机理与防护的研究报道仍然较少,IOB微观电化学腐蚀过程还不清楚。未来从微观上揭示IOB的电化学腐蚀过程以及电子传递过程对于IOB腐蚀防护具有重要的意义。微生物共生引起的协同腐蚀研究有助于揭示工况条件下MIC状况,也能够为MIC控制提供理论支撑,必然是MIC研究的一个重要方向。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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(周平, 秦双, 叶琴. 油田污水中碳钢表面生物膜的生长监测与控制[J]. 材料保护, 2013, 46(11): 20)
金属表面硫酸盐还原茵微生物膜内的反应影响金属腐蚀的机理和速度,杀灭膜内微生物是控制微生物膜腐蚀金属的重要措施。采用丝柬电极技术,研究了油田污水中生物膜在Q345碳钢表面的生长规律;通过投加3种杀菌剂来灭杀生物膜内细菌,并对其杀菌效果进行了比较,获得了杀菌剂对细菌的抑制周期及最低有效浓度。结果表明:油田污水中微生物首先在Q345碳钢表面大量附着、生长,至216h时生长完整,至360h时开始脱落;生物膜对Q345钢的腐蚀呈现不均匀性,微生物的存在可在局部范围内降低Q345碳钢表面的腐蚀电流密度,但有促进其腐蚀的倾向;杀菌剂HGY—B1的杀菌效果优于KD.24及Lc-3,投添加量为300mg/L时,对生物膜内细菌抑制周期可达8d,最低杀菌浓度为40mg/L。
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[29] Zhao Y, Xue W B, Liu H F.Effect of rare earth Ce3+ on the microbial induced corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy LY12CZ[J]. Acta Phys.-Chim. Sin., 2012, 27: 2618
[本文引用:1]
(赵勇, 薛文斌, 刘宏芳. 稀土铈对铝合金LY12CZ微生物腐蚀行为的影响[J]. 物理化学学报, 2012, 27: 2618)
采用紫外分光光度法(UVS)、最大可能数法(MPN)、循环阳 极极化法、电化学阻抗谱(EIS)和表面荧光显微法(EFM)研究了不同含量稀土Ce3+离子对硫酸盐还原菌(SRB)生长及LY12CZ铝合金微生物腐 蚀行为的影响.结果表明:低浓度的Ce3+离子能够促进SRB生长,而高浓度时则抑制其生长;循环阳极极化曲线表明,稀土Ce3+离子的加入使铝合金 LY12CZ的点蚀敏感性降低;电化学阻抗谱表明,在纯培养基中,随稀土Ce3+离子浓度的增大,铝合金耐蚀性增大.而在接种1% SRB的培养基中,当Ce3+浓度为0.376 mg·L-1时,生长旺盛的生物膜与Ce3+间产生协同作用,增加了基体铝合金耐腐蚀性能.随着Ce3+浓度的增加,SRB生长受到抑制,不能形成致密的 生物膜.此时SRB的存在促进铝合金腐蚀,显著减弱Ce3+对基体铝合金的保护作用.
DOI:10.3866/PKU.WHXB20111109      URL    
[30] Liu H W, Chen B, Zhang F, et al.Effects of iron-oxidizing bacteria on carbon steel in oilfield produced water[J]. ECS Trans., 2014, 59: 409
<span style='font-family:'Times New Roman','serif';font-size:10.5pt;'>The effects of iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) on the corrosion of carbon steel in oilfield produced water was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), weight loss and electrochemical measurements including open-circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization <a href='app:ds:curve'><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;'>curve measurements. SEM morphologies showed that the biofilm was mainly composed of corrosion products, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and little IOB. Additionally, without IOB, the corrosion products were only iron oxides. EIS indicated that the integrity of biofilm on the specimen surface changed with time and the biofilm removed partly at later stage. Potentiodynamic polarization <a href='app:ds:curve'><span style='color:windowtext;text-decoration:none;'>curves indicated that IOB mainly influenced the cathodic process at later stage, and enhanced local corrosion of specimen.
DOI:10.1149/05901.0409ecst      URL     [本文引用:1]
[31] Hall-Stoodley L, Stoodley P.Biofilm formation and dispersal and the transmission of human pathogens[J]. Trends Microbiol., 2005, 13: 7
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[32] Chandra J, Kuhn D M, Mukherjee P K, et al.Biofilm formation by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans: Development, architecture, and drug resistance[J]. J. Bacteriol., 2001, 183: 5385
Biofilms are a protected niche for microorganisms, where they are safe from antibiotic treatment and can create a source of persistent infection. Using two clinically relevant Candida albicans biofilm models formed on bioprosthetic materials, we demonstrated that biofilm formation proceeds through three distinct developmental phases. These growth phases transform adherent blastospores to well-defined cellular communities encased in a polysaccharide matrix. Fluorescence and confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that C. albicans biofilms have a highly heterogeneous architecture composed of cellular and noncellular elements. In both models, antifungal resistance of biofilm-grown cells increased in conjunction with biofilm formation. The expression of agglutinin-like (ALS) genes, which encode a family of proteins implicated in adhesion to host surfaces, was differentially regulated between planktonic and biofilm-grown cells. The ability of C. albicans to form biofilms contrasts sharply with that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which adhered to bioprosthetic surfaces but failed to form a mature biofilm. The studies described here form the basis for investigations into the molecular mechanisms of Candida biofilm biology and antifungal resistance and provide the means to design novel therapies for biofilm-based infections.
DOI:10.1128/JB.183.18.5385-5394.2001      PMID:11514524      URL     [本文引用:]
[33] Enning D, Garrelfs J.Corrosion of iron by sulfate-reducing bacteria: New views of an old problem[J]. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2014, 80: 1226
About a century ago, researchers first recognized a connection between the activity of environmental microorganisms and cases of anaerobic iron corrosion. Since then, such microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has gained prominence and its technical and economic implications are now widely recognized. Under anoxic conditions (e.g., in oil and gas pipelines), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are commonly considered the main culprits of MIC. This perception largely stems from three recurrent observations. First, anoxic sulfate-rich environments (e.g., anoxic seawater) are particularly corrosive. Second, SRB and their characteristic corrosion product iron sulfide are ubiquitously associated with anaerobic corrosion damage, and third, no other physiological group produces comparably severe corrosion damage in laboratory-grown pure cultures. However, there remain many open questions as to the underlying mechanisms and their relative contributions to corrosion. On the one hand, SRB damage iron constructions indirectly through a corrosive chemical agent, hydrogen sulfide, formed by the organisms as a dissimilatory product from sulfate reduction with organic compounds or hydrogen ("chemical microbially influenced corrosion"; CMIC). On the other hand, certain SRB can also attack iron via withdrawal of electrons ("electrical microbially influenced corrosion"; EMIC), viz., directly by metabolic coupling. Corrosion of iron by SRB is typically associated with the formation of iron sulfides (FeS) which, paradoxically, may reduce corrosion in some cases while they increase it in others. This brief review traces the historical twists in the perception of SRB-induced corrosion, considering the presently most plausible explanations as well as possible early misconceptions in the understanding of severe corrosion in anoxic, sulfate-rich environments.
DOI:10.1128/AEM.02848-13      PMID:24317078      URL     [本文引用:1]
[34] Lenhart T R, Duncan K E, Beech I B, et al.Identification and characterization of microbial biofilm communities associated with corroded oil pipeline surfaces[J]. Biofouling, 2014, 30: 823
Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has long been implicated in the deterioration of carbon steel in oil and gas pipeline systems. The authors sought to identify and characterize sessile biofilm communities within a high-temperature oil production pipeline, and to compare the profiles of the biofilm community with those of the previously analyzed planktonic communities. Eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA sequences of DNA recovered from extracted pipeline pieces, termed 鈥榗ookies,鈥 revealed the presence of thermophilic sulfidogenic anaerobes, as well as mesophilic aerobes. Electron microscopy and elemental analysis of cookies confirmed the presence of sessile cells and chemical constituents consistent with corrosive biofilms. Mass spectrometry of cookie acid washes identified putative hydrocarbon metabolites, while surface profiling revealed pitting and general corrosion damage. The results suggest that in an established closed system, the biofilm taxa are representative of the planktonic eubacterial and archaeal community, and that sampling and monitoring of the planktonic bacterial population can offer insight into biocorrosion activity. Additionally, hydrocarbon biodegradation is likely to sustain these communities. The importance of appropriate sample handling and storage procedures to oilfield MIC diagnostics is highlighted.
DOI:10.1080/08927014.2014.931379      PMID:25115517      URL     [本文引用:1]
[35] Xia J, Yang C G, Xu D K, et al.Laboratory investigation of the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) resistance of a novel cu-bearing 2205 duplex stainless steel in the presence of an aerobic marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm[J]. Biofouling, 2015, 31: 481
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[36] Xu D K, Li Y C, Song F M, et al.Laboratory investigation of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of C1018 carbon steel by nitrate reducing bacterium Bacillus licheniformis[J]. Corros. Sci., 2013, 77: 385
Nitrate injection is used to suppress reservoir souring in oil and gas fields caused by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) through promotion of nitrate respiration by Nitrate Reducing Bacteria (NRB). However, it is not well publicized that nitrate reduction by NRB can cause Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) because nitrate reduction coupled with iron oxidation is thermodynamically favorable. NRB benefits bioenergetically from this redox reaction under biocatalysis. This work showed that the Bacillus licheniformis biofilm, when grown as an NRB biofilm, caused a 14.5渭m maximum pit depth and 0.89mg/cm2 normalized weight loss against C1018 carbon steel in one-week lab tests.
DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2013.07.044      URL     [本文引用:1]
[37] Zhang Y J, Li S, Xu P, et al.Effect of NaClO addition on bacteriostasis of iron bacteria and corrosion control of pipe line steel for water distribution network in urban reclaimed water[J]. Corros. Sci. Prot. Technol., 2015, 27: 165
[本文引用:1]
(张雅君, 李斯, 许萍. 再生水管网基于IB与腐蚀控制的NaClO投加量研究[J]. 腐蚀科学与防护技术, 2015, 27: 165)
基于再生水管网铁细菌(IB)与腐蚀控制,着重探讨了不同次氯酸钠(NaClO)初始投加量下IB控制效果随时间的变化规律,以及上述控制过程中NaClO初始投加量对金属腐蚀行为影响及其腐蚀产物。结果表明,NaClO对再生水中IB的控制效果显著;初始投加浓度越高,IB复活所需时间越长,IB数量控制的效果也越好。IB可明显加重碳钢的腐蚀,但随着时间的延长,生物膜生长又对碳钢腐蚀具有延缓作用,投加NaClO可有效缓解初期IB腐蚀。投加NaClO虽然对IB有一定的控制作用,但其本身也具有腐蚀性,且初始投加NaClO浓度越高,金属腐蚀速率越大。综合IB控制和腐蚀控制,确定NaClO的最佳投加量为7mg/L。
DOI:10.11903/1002.6495.2014.326      URL    
[38] Sun H F, Shi B Y, Lytle D A, et al.Formation and release behavior of iron corrosion products under the influence of bacterial communities in a simulated water distribution system[J]. Environ. Sci. Process. Impacts, 2014, 16: 576
To understand the formation and release behavior of iron corrosion products in a drinking water distribution system, annular reactors (ARs) were used to investigate the development processes of corrosion products and biofilm community as well as the concomitant iron release behavior. Results showed that the formation and transformation of corrosion products and bacterial community are closely related to each other. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB,e.g. DesulfovibrioandDesulfotomaculum), sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB,e.g. Sulfuricella), and iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB,e.g. Acidovorax,Gallionella,Leptothrix, andSphaerotilus) in biofilms could speed up iron corrosion; however, iron-reducing bacteria (IRB,e.g. Bacillus,Clostridium, andPseudomonas) could inhibit iron corrosion and iron release. Corrosion scales on iron coupons could develop into a two-layered structure (top layer and inner layer) with time. The relatively stable constituents such as goethite (伪-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe3O4) mainly existed in the top layers, while green rust (Fe6(OH)12CO3) mainly existed in the inner layers. The IOB (especiallyAcidovorax) contributed to the formation of 伪-FeOOH, while IRB and the anaerobic conditions could facilitate the formation of Fe3O4. Compared with the AR test without biofilms, the iron corrosion rate with biofilms was relatively higher (p< 0.05) during the whole experimental period, but the iron release with biofilms was obviously lower both at the initial stage and after 3 months. Biofilm and corrosion scale samples formed under different water supply conditions in an actual drinking water distribution system verified the relationships between the bacterial community and corrosion products.
DOI:10.1039/c3em00544e      PMID:24509822      URL     [本文引用:1]
[39] Emerson D, Fleming E J, McBeth J M. Iron-oxidizing bacteria: an environmental and genomic perspective[J]. Annu. Rev. Microbiol., 2010, 64: 561
In the 1830s, iron bacteria were among the first groups of microbes to be recognized for carrying out a fundamental geological process, namely the oxidation of iron. Due to lingering questions about their metabolism, coupled with difficulties in culturing important community members, studies of Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) have lagged behind those of other important microbial lithotrophic metabolisms. Recently, research on lithotrophic, oxygen-dependent FeOB that grow at circumneutral pH has accelerated. This work is driven by several factors including the recognition by both microbiologists and geoscientists of the role FeOB play in the biogeochemistry of iron and other elements. The isolation of new strains of obligate FeOB allowed a better understanding of their physiology and phylogeny and the realization that FeOB are abundant at certain deep-sea hydrothermal vents. These ancient microorganisms offer new opportunities to learn about fundamental biological processes that can be of practical importance.
DOI:10.1146/annurev.micro.112408.134208      PMID:20565252      URL     [本文引用:2]
[40] Xu C M, Zhang Y H, Cheng G X, et al.Pitting corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel in the media of sulphate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria[J]. Mater. Charact., 2008, 59: 245
Pitting corrosion behavior of 316L SS was investigated in the presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from cooling water system in oil refinery using polarization measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy examinations and energy dispersive spectrum analysis. The results show the corrosion potential ( E corr), pitting potential ( E pit) and polarization resistance ( R P) of 316L SS had a distinct decrease in the presence of bacteria, in comparison with those observed in the sterile medium for the same exposure time interval. Micrometer-scale pitting was observed on the 316L SS surface in the presence of bacteria. The combination of SRB and IOB demonstrated higher corrosion rates than SRB or IOB alone. The synergy of 0.01聽M NaCl + SRB + IOB yielded the highest corrosion rate. The synergies between the metal surface, abiotic corrosion products, chloride anion, and bacterial cells and their metabolic products increased the corrosion damage degree of the passive film and accelerated pitting propagation.
DOI:10.1016/j.matchar.2007.01.001      URL     [本文引用:2]
[41] Li X, Wang H, Hu X, et al.Characteristics of corrosion sales and biofilm in aged pipe distribution systems with switching water source[J]. Eng. Fail. Anal., 2016, 60: 166
Red water has occasionally been observed in the water distribution system of Beijing following a change in the city's water source. Aged cast iron pipes from both affected and unaffected areas were used to establish experimental drinking water distribution systems under different disinfection conditions. The scale deposits formed under different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and the bacterial characteristics of the corrosion scales were determined using several molecular methods. The water quality changed less in pipe samples from the unaffected areas than pipes from the affected areas. The pipe samples from the unaffected area included predominantly 伪-FeOOH, Fe 3 O 4 , and 纬-FeOOH, and 24.2% nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) were predominant with fewer iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) being observed. The composition of corrosion products did not exhibit large variation over time although their crystallinity exhibited a slight decrease throughout the duration of the experiment. In contrast, in the pipe samples from the affected, 伪-FeOOH was the main compound with less 纬-FeOOH and Fe 3 O 4 , and 3.3% IOB and 12% NRB with few IRB were observed. However, after transporting surface water containing disinfectants, the Fe 3 O 4 and dense corrosion layer formed, inhibiting the release of iron. Moreover, IRB and NRB became dominant. 22.6% and 34.3% NRB appeared in the pipes after chlorination and chloramination, respectively. The synergistic interaction of IRB and NRB with the corrosion layer played a large role in the release of iron from a cast iron pipe following changes in water quality.
DOI:10.1016/j.engfailanal.2015.11.048      URL     [本文引用:1]
[42] Lang X F, Qiu L N, Gong A J, et al.Review on microbiologically influenced corrosion and antisepsis techniques[J]. Total Corros. Control, 2009, 23(10): 20
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(郎序菲, 邱丽娜, 弓爱君. 微生物腐蚀及防腐技术的研究现状[J]. 全面腐蚀控制, 2009, 23(10): 20)
本文概括介绍了造成微生物腐蚀的常见菌种,如硫酸盐还原菌、铁细菌、产酸菌等,其中主要介绍了硫酸盐还原菌的腐蚀机理。针对微生物腐蚀,目前国内外的防腐技术分为物理方法、化学方法和生物方法,文章对主要的防腐技术进行了介绍。
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[43] Yang L, Barken K B, Skindersoe M E, et al.Effects of iron on DNA release and biofilm development by Pseudomonas aeruginosa[J]. Microbiology, 2007, 153: 1318
Extracellular DNA is one of the major matrix components in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. It functions as an intercellular connector and plays a role in stabilization of the biofilms. Evidence that DNA release in P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms is controlled by the las-rhl and pqs quorum-sensing systems has been previously presented. This paper provides evidence that DNA release in P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms is also under iron regulation. Experiments involving cultivation of P. aeruginosa in microtitre trays suggested that pqs expression, DNA release and biofilm formation were favoured in media with low iron concentrations (5 microM FeCl(3)), and decreased with increasing iron concentrations. Experiments involving cultivation of P. aeruginosa in a flow-chamber system suggested that a high level of iron (100 microM FeCl(3)) in the medium suppressed DNA release, structural biofilm development, and the development of subpopulations with increased tolerance toward antimicrobial compounds. Experiments with P. aeruginosa strains harbouring fluorescent reporters suggested that expression of the pqs operon was induced in particular subpopulations of the biofilm cells under low-iron conditions (1 microM FeCl(3)), but repressed in the biofilm cells under high-iron conditions (100 microM FeCl(3)).
DOI:10.1099/mic.0.2006/004911-0      PMID:17464046      URL     [本文引用:1]
[44] Homborg A M, Morales C F L, Tinga T, et al. Detection of microbiologically influenced corrosion by electrochemical noise transients[J]. Electrochim. Acta, 2014, 136: 223
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[45] Dong Z H, Shi W, Ruan H M, et al.Heterogeneous corrosion of mild steel under srb-biofilm characterised by electrochemical mapping technique[J]. Corros. Sci., 2011, 53: 2978
Heterogeneous corrosion of mild steel under sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB)-biofilm was characterised by wire beam electrode (WBE) technique and electrochemical impedance spectrum. The potential/current distributions of the WBE under SRB-biofilm showed that the potential maps could not indicate the localised corrosion of steels beneath biofilm due to the fact that all wire electrodes were short-circuited by the highly conductive sulphide precipitates embedded in SRB-biofilm. Instead, the galvanic current maps may give a good indication. The characteristic of super-capacitance (0.21聽F/cm 2 ) of SRB-biofilm was attributed to the huge specific surface area of conductive pore walls inside biofilm.
DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2011.05.041      URL     [本文引用:2]
[46] Dinh H T, Kuever J, Mußmann M, et al.Iron corrosion by novel anaerobic microorganisms[J]. Nature, 2004, 427: 829
Corrosion of iron presents a serious economic problem. Whereas aerobic corrosion is a chemical process, anaerobic corrosion is frequently linked to the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB are supposed to act upon iron primarily by produced hydrogen sulphide as a corrosive agent and by consumption of 'cathodic hydrogen' formed on iron in contact with water. Among SRB, Desulfovibrio species--with their capacity to consume hydrogen effectively--are conventionally regarded as the main culprits of anaerobic corrosion; however, the underlying mechanisms are complex and insufficiently understood. Here we describe novel marine, corrosive types of SRB obtained via an isolation approach with metallic iron as the only electron donor. In particular, a Desulfobacterium-like isolate reduced sulphate with metallic iron much faster than conventional hydrogen-scavenging Desulfovibrio species, suggesting that the novel surface-attached cell type obtained electrons from metallic iron in a more direct manner than via free hydrogen. Similarly, a newly isolated Methanobacterium-like archaeon produced methane with iron faster than do known hydrogen-using methanogens, again suggesting a more direct access to electrons from iron than via hydrogen consumption.
DOI:10.1038/nature02321      PMID:14985759      URL     [本文引用:1]
[47] Liu H W, Liu H F, Qin S, et al.Investigation of biomineralization induced by sulfate reducing bacteria in sewage gathering pipelines in oilfield[J]. Corros. Sci. Prot. Technol., 2015, 27: 7
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(刘宏伟, 刘宏芳, 秦双. 集输管线硫酸盐还原菌诱导生物矿化作用调查[J]. 腐蚀科学与防护技术, 2015, 27: 7)
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[48] Starosvetsky D, Armon R, Yahalom J, et al.Pitting corrosion of carbon steel caused by iron bacteria[J]. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 2001, 47: 79
Corrosion mechanism of 1020 AISI carbon steel was studied in iron bacteria contaminated water. A mixed culture of iron oxidizing bacteria, originally isolated from rust deposits of a clogged carbon steel heat exchanger was used. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements were carried out in 1 g l 611 NaCl solution with or without the addition of iron bacteria culture. The experimental results show that addition of the iron bacteria culture to 1 g l 611 NaCl solution induces a drastic ennoblement of corrosion potential ( E corr) from 610.75 to 610.25 V (SCE) and surface passivation. Through further exposure, E corr slowly shifted back and the steel underwent a severe pitting attack, an effect which was not observed with 1 g l 611 NaCl solution alone or when augmented with a nutrient medium. Electrochemical measurements show that the experimentally observed strong acceleration in pitting corrosion process occurred due to an increase in both cathodic and anodic reaction rates, induced by the iron bacteria.
DOI:10.1016/S0964-8305(99)00081-5      URL     [本文引用:1]
[49] Teng F, Guan Y T, Zhu W P.Effect of biofilm on cast iron pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution system: corrosion scales characterization and microbial community structure investigation[J]. Corros. Sci., 2008, 50: 2816
Effect of biofilm on corrosion scales of cast iron pipe was studied with the biofilm community structure investigated by PCR-DGGE to give an explanation to MIC from the viewpoint of microbial phase. Corrosion scales were identified with XRD and XPS. It was demonstrated that biofilm can greatly affect element composition and crystalline phase of corrosion scales. Biofilm can accelerate corrosion in 7 d, but inhibit corrosion after 7 d, which was due to iron bacteria and iron reducing bacteria (IRB), respectively. DGGE fingerprinting gave a well explanation to this transition, which might be contributed to the change of biofilm microbial diversity.
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[50] Dignac M F, Urbain V, Rybacki D, et al.Chemical description of extracellular polymers: Implication on activated sludge floc structure[J]. Water Sci. Technol., 1998, 38: 45
Activated sludge extracellular polymers (ECP) were extracted either by sonication or a combination of sonication and cation exchange resin treatment (CER). The chemical composition of the aqu
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[51] Ghafari M D, Bahrami A, Rasooli I, et al.Bacterial exopolymeric inhibition of carbon steel corrosion[J]. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 2013, 80: 29
The development of biofilms is a combination of adhesion of organic and/or inorganic macromolecules, exopolymeric substance (EPS) production and microbial growth. In this study a variety of bacterial strains were isolated from different environments such as soil and water in order to investigate the corrosion inhibition by EPS. Fifty two mucoid colonies were obtained from the samples on Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Carbon steel (low carbon) coupons were then exposed to seawater-mimicking medium (VNSS) containing different bacterial suspensions. Twenty one bacteria were identified by fluorescence dye staining screening for their efficient biofilm formation and biofilm development/EPS attachment on coupons surface. The mass loss of coupons was determined and two bacterial strains were selected for further analyses. The results obtained from EPS extraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) demonstrated that two bacterial strains could produce EPS with good effect on corrosion inhibition. The biochemical tests and 16S rRNA ribotyping lead to identification of these strains as Chryseobacterium indologenes MUT.2 and Klebsiella pneumonia MUT.1. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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[52] Huang D M.Investigation of cariogenicity induced by Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus Sobrinus[J]. Shanghai J. Stomatol., 1996, 5(2): 98
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Magsci     URL    
[53] Jin J T, Wu G X, Zhang Z H, et al.Effect of extracellular polymeric substances on corrosion of cast iron in the reclaimed wastewater[J]. Bioresour. Technol., 2014, 165: 162
Microorganisms were cultured in the R2A medium with inoculum from biofilm in a reclaimed wastewater distribution system and then extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were extracted from the culture. Characterization of EPS and their effects on the corrosion of cast iron were examined. EPS extracted from different culturing stages contained different proportions of protein and polysaccharide but with similar functional groups. All types of EPS could inhibit cast iron corrosion and the EPS from the stationary stage had the highest inhibition efficiency. The inhibition efficiency was increased with addition of a small amount of EPS while decreased with excessive amount of EPS. EPS formed a protective film on the metal surface, which retarded the cathodic reduction of oxygen. Excessive amount of EPS promoted anodic dissolution through EPS鈥揊e binding. The CO and C(O, N) in EPS could be the anodic electrochemical sites with possible products of C(C, H).
DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.117      PMID:24618284      URL     [本文引用:1]
[54] Washizu N, Katada Y, Kodama T.Role of H2O2 in microbially influenced ennoblement of open circuit potentials for type 316L stainless steel in seawater[J]. Corros. Sci., 2004, 46: 1291
Type 316L stainless steel specimens were exposed to natural seawater during several seasons. The concentration of H 2 O 2 in native biofilms formed on the specimens was detected after the exposures, and open circuit potentials (OCP) for the specimens were also measured. During the summer season, the concentration of H 2 O 2 was higher than 10 ppm and OCP were nobler than +0.6 V vs. SHE. On the other hand, during the winter season, the H 2 O 2 concentration was lower than 2 ppm and OCP were less noble than +0.3 V vs. SHE. The specimens were exposed to synthetic seawater, to which catalase or peroxidase was added, and H 2 O 2 in native biofilms was found to be decomposed. The ennoblement of OCP was offset by the decomposing H 2 O 2 . The value of OCP for type 316L with H 2 O 2 -free biofilms was as less noble as that with no biofilm growth.
DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2003.09.018      URL     [本文引用:1]
[55] Chan K Y, Xu L C, Fang H H P. Anaerobic electrochemical corrosion rug of mild steel in the presence of extracellular polymeric substances produced by a culture enriched in sulfate-reducing bacteria[J]. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2002, 36: 1720
Abstract The corrosion of mild steel in a seawater medium containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was studied by electrochemical experiments and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Under anaerobic conditions, the corrosion of mild steel increased up to 5-fold in the presence of a 1% (w/w) EPS solution but in the absence of SRB. The enhanced corrosion is mainly due to the oxidizing power of EPS with a reduction potential of E1/2 at -0.54 V (saturated calomel electrode), which is 0.4 V above that of hydrogen reduction. The electrochemical reduction of EPS provides a couple to iron oxidation, as demonstrated by H-shaped cell experiments in which the steel sample and EPS are not in physical contact but are ionically connected via the solution and electronically connected through an external wire. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that EPS derived from SRB are comprised of 60% proteins, 37% polysaccharides, and 3% hydrocarbons. The XPS results showed that, upon corrosion, polysaccharide components were mostly converted to hydrocarbons.
DOI:10.1021/es011187c      PMID:11993869      URL     [本文引用:1]
[56] Jin J T, Guan Y T.The mutual co-regulation of extracellular polymeric substances and iron ions in biocorrosion of cast iron pipes[J]. Bioresour. Technol., 2014, 169: 387
New insights into the biocorrosion process may be gained through understanding of the interaction between extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and iron. Herein, the effect of iron ions on the formation of biofilms and production of EPS was investigated. Additionally, the impact of EPS on the corrosion of cast iron coupons was explored. The results showed that a moderate concentration of iron ions (0.06mg/L) promoted both biofilm formation and EPS production. The presence of EPS accelerated corrosion during the initial stage, while inhibited corrosion at the later stage. The functional groups of EPS acted as electron shuttles to enable the binding of iron ions. Binding of iron ions with EPS led to anodic dissolution and promoted corrosion, while corrosion was later inhibited through oxygen reduction and availability of phosphorus from EPS. The presence of EPS also led to changes in crystalline phases of corrosion products.
DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2014.06.059      PMID:25069092      URL     [本文引用:1]
[57] van Beek C G E M, Hiemstra T, Hofs B, et al. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation of iron (II) in rapid sand filtration[J]. J. Water Supply: Res. Technol. AQUA, 2012, 61: 1
Homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological oxidation may precipitate iron(II) as iron(III) hydroxides. In this paper we evaluate the conditions under which each of these processes is dominant in rapid sand filtration (RSF). It is demonstrated that in the presence of iron(III) hydroxide precipitates homogeneous oxidation is negligible compared with heterogeneous oxidation. As soon as iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB) are present, biological oxidation may contribute substantially, in particular under conditions of slight acidity and low oxygen concentration. As the oxidation step is preceded by an adsorption/uptake step, the competition between heterogeneous and biological oxidation is not determined by the oxidation rate, but by the adsorption or uptake rate. Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), excreted by all kinds of bacteria, may serve as an initial adsorbent for dissolved iron(II) and iron(III) hydroxides. Because adsorption and oxidation of iron (II) either on biofilms (or EPS) or on mineral surfaces, are chemical processes, 'EPS iron oxidation' is not considered as a biological process. The so-called 'biological iron oxidation' actually refers to a treatment method characterized by high filtration rates and limited oxygen supply, where iron(II) is removed mainly by heterogeneous oxidation. The contribution of oxidation of iron(II) by IOB in this method is variable and may even be absent.
DOI:10.2166/aqua.2012.033      URL     [本文引用:1]
[58] Sharma S K, Petrusevski B, Schippers J C.Biological iron removal from groundwater: A review[J]. J. Water Supply: Res. Technol.AQUA, 2005, 54: 239
ABSTRACT Iron is generally removed from groundwater by the process of aeration or chemical oxidation followed by rapid sand filtration. Different mechanisms (physicochemical and biological) may contribute to iron removal in filters but the dominant mechanism depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the water and process conditions applied. Nowadays, there are increasing numbers of publications on methods of biological iron removal which are reported to be much more efficient and cost effective than conventional physicochemical iron removal. However, the biological iron removal mechanism is not fully understood and there are still controversies about whether the mechanism of iron removal in filters could be solely biological or whether the presence of iron oxidising bacteria supplements the physicochemical iron removal mechanisms under certain specific conditions. This paper reviews the theoretical background of biologically mediated iron removal, the process conditions required, the advantages and limitations of the method and a few case studies. A literature review revealed that biological iron removal is not suitable when pH and oxygen concentrations are high and/or , H2S and Zn are present. Physicochemical removal mechanisms can achieve the same removal efficiency under the conditions that are reported to be favourable for biological iron removal. Biological iron removal is likely to be supplementary to conventional physicochemical iron removal.
DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9488(2005)131:2(112)      URL     [本文引用:1]
[59] Xu J, Xu B, Zhang Z W, et al.Infulence of saccharides in the EPS of iron bacteria on Q235 carbon steel in the 1 mol/L Na2SO4 solution[J]. Water Treat. Inform. Cover., 2014, (3): 7
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(徐洁, 徐斌, 张振武. 铁细菌胞外聚合物中糖类在1 mol/L Na2SO4溶液中对Q235碳钢的影响[J]. 水处理信息报导, 2014, (3): 7)
微生物及其胞外聚合物是影响金属腐蚀的重要原因之一,由于在碳钢表面形成的胞外聚合物结构松散不均匀,且构成较隽复杂,本文选取了胞外聚合物中含量较高的海藻糖、鼠李糖和葡萄糖等三种常见糖类,用静态失重、电化学等方法研究了其在1mol/LNa2SO4溶液中对Q235碳钢的作用。
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[60] Beech I B, Sunner J.Biocorrosion: Towards understanding interactions between biofilms and metals[J]. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 2004, 15: 181
Abstract The term microbially influenced corrosion, or biocorrosion, refers to the accelerated deterioration of metals owing to the presence of biofilms on their surfaces. The detailed mechanisms of biocorrosion are still poorly understood. Recent investigations into biocorrosion have focused on the influence of biomineralization processes taking place on metallic surfaces and the impact of extracellular enzymes, active within the biofilm matrix, on electrochemical reactions at the biofilm-metal interface.
DOI:10.1016/j.copbio.2004.05.001      PMID:15193324      URL     [本文引用:3]
[61] Emerson D, Moyer C.Isolation and characterization of novel iron-oxidizing bacteria that grow at circumneutral pH[J]. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1997, 63: 4784
A gel-stabilized gradient method that employed opposing gradients of Fe2+ and O2 was used to isolate and characterize two new Fe-oxidizing bacteria from a neutral pH, Fe(2+)-containing groundwater in Michigan. Two separate enrichment cultures were obtained, and in each the cells grew in a distinct, rust-colored band in the gel at the oxic-anoxic interface. The cells were tightly associated with the ferric hydroxides. Repeated serial dilutions of both enrichments resulted in the isolation of two axenic strains, ES-1 and ES-2. The cultures were judged pure based on (i) growth from single colonies in tubes at dilutions of 10(-7) (ES-2) (ES-2) and 10(-8) (ES-1); (ii) uniform cell morphologies, i.e., ES-1 was a motile long thin, bent, or S-shaped rod and ES-2 was a shorter curved rod; and (iii) no growth on a heterotrophic medium. Strain ES-1 grew to a density of 10(8) cells/ml on FeS with a doubling time of 8 h. Strain ES-2 grew to a density of 5 x 10(7) cells/ml with a doubling time of 12.5 h. Both strains also grew on FeCO3. Neither strain grew without Fe2+, nor did they grow with glucose, pyruvate, acetate, Mn, or H2S as an electron donor. Studies with an oxygen microelectrode revealed that both strains grew at the oxic-anoxic interface of the gradients and tracked the O2 minima when subjected to higher O2 concentrations, suggesting they are microaerobes. Phylogenetically the two strains formed a novel lineage within the gamma Proteobacteria. They were very closely related to each other and were equally closely related to PVB OTU 1, a phylotype obtained from an iron-rich hydrothermal vent system at the Loihi Seamount in the Pacific Ocean, and SPB OTU 1, a phylotype obtained from permafrost soil in Siberia. Their closest cultivated relative was Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In total, this evidence suggests ES-1 and ES-2 are members of a previously untapped group of putatively lithotrophic, unicellular iron-oxidizing bacteria.
DOI:10.2514/1.40294      PMID:168801      URL     [本文引用:1]
[62] Zhai F T, Li H H, Xu C M.Corrosion behavior of 2507 duplex stainless steel in cooling water with different IOB contents[J]. J. Xi'an Technol. Univ., 2015, 35: 654
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(翟芳婷, 李辉辉, 胥聪敏. 2507双相不锈钢在含铁氧化菌冷却水中的腐蚀行为[J]. 西安工业大学学报, 2015, 35: 654)
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[63] Neubauer S C, Emerson D, Megonigal J P.Life at the energetic edge: Kinetics of circumneutral iron oxidation by lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria isolated from the wetland-plant rhizosphere[J]. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2002, 68: 3988
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[64] Roden E E, Sobolev D, Glazer B, et al.Potential for microscale bacterial Fe redox cycling at the aerobic-anaerobic interface[J]. Geomicrobiol. J., 2004, 21: 379
Recent studies of bacterial Fe(II) oxidation at circumneutral pH by a newly-isolated lithotrophic 尾-Proteobacterium (strain TW2) are reviewed in relation to a conceptual model that accounts for the influence of biogenic Fe(III)-binding ligands on patterns of Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) oxide deposition in opposing gradients of Fe(II) and O2. The conceptual model envisions complexation of Fe(III) by biogenic ligands as mechanism which alters the locus of Fe(III) oxide deposition relative to Fe(II) oxidation so as to delay/retard cell encrustation with Fe(III) oxides. Experiments examining the potential for bacterial Fe redox cycling in microcosms containing ferrihydrite-coated sand and a coculture of a lithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium (strain TW2) and a dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium (Shewanella algae strain BrY) are described and interpreted in relation to an extended version of the conceptual model in which Fe(III)-binding ligands promote rapid microscale Fe redox cycling. The coculture systems showed minimal Fe(III) oxide accumulation at the sand-water interface, despite intensive O2 input from the atmosphere and measurable dissolved O2 to a depth of 2 mm below the sand-water interface. In contrast, a distinct layer of oxide precipitates formed in systems containing Fe(III)-reducing bacteria alone. Voltammetric microelectrode measurements revealed much lower concentrations of dissolved Fe(II) in the coculture systems. Examination of materials from the cocultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated close physical juxtapositioning of Fe(II)-oxidizing and Fe(III)reducing bacteria in the upper few mm of sand. Together these results indicate that Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria have the potential to enhance the coupling of Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) reduction at redox interfaces, thereby promoting rapid microscale cycling of Fe.
DOI:10.1080/01490450490485872      URL     [本文引用:2]
[65] Emerson D, de Vet W. The role of feob in engineered water ecosystems: A review[J]. J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 2015, 107: E47
The American Water Works Association is the oldest and largest nonprofit, scientific and educational organization dedicated to safe and sustainable water in the world.
DOI:10.5942/jawwa.2015.107.0004      URL     [本文引用:1]
[66] Liu H W, Gu T Y, Zhang G A, et al.The effect of magneticfield on biomineralization and corrosion behavior of carbon steel induced by iron-oxidizing bacteria[J]. Corros. Sci., 2016, 102: 93
In this paper, the effect of a magneticfield (MF) on biomineralization and corrosion behavior of Q235 carbon steel were studied using surface analysis, weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Experimental results showed that MF inhibited the growth of iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) and the corrosion of Q235 carbon steel. MF reduced the largest pit depth by half, while it reduced pit population density from 50pitscm612to 10pitscm612. MF also altered the morphology of biomineralization film, leading to the formation of a more compact biomineralization film which contributed to the lower corrosion rate.
DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2015.09.023      URL     [本文引用:2]
[67] McBeth J M, Little B J, Ray R I, et al. Neutrophilic iron-oxidizing "Zetaproteobacteria" and mild steel corrosion in nearshore marine environments[J]. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2011, 77: 1405
Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of mild steel in seawater is an expensive and enduring problem. Little attention has been paid to the role of neutrophilic, lithotrophic, iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) in MIC. The goal of this study was to determine if marine FeOB related to Mariprofundus are involved in this process. To examine this, field incubations and laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted. Mild steel samples incubated in nearshore environments were colonized by marine FeOB, as evidenced by the presence of helical iron-encrusted stalks diagnostic of the FeOB Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, a member of the candidate class "Zetaproteobacteria." Furthermore, Mariprofundus-like cells were enriched from MIC biofilms. The presence of Zetaproteobacteria was confirmed using a Zetaproteobacteria-specific small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene primer set to amplify sequences related to M. ferrooxydans from both enrichments and in situ samples of MIC biofilms. Temporal in situ incubation studies showed a qualitative increase in stalk distribution on mild steel, suggesting progressive colonization by stalk-forming FeOB. We also isolated a novel FeOB, designated Mariprofundus sp. strain GSB2, from an iron oxide mat in a salt marsh. Strain GSB2 enhanced uniform corrosion from mild steel in laboratory microcosm experiments conducted over 4 days. Iron concentrations (including precipitates) in the medium were used as a measure of corrosion. The corrosion in biotic samples (7.4 卤 0.1 mM) was significantly higher than that in abiotic controls (5.0 卤 0.1 mM). These results have important implications for the role of FeOB in corrosion of steel in nearshore and estuarine environments. In addition, this work shows that the global distribution of Zetaproteobacteria is far greater than previously thought.
DOI:10.1128/AEM.02095-10      PMID:3067224      URL     [本文引用:1]
[68] Wang H, Ju L K, Castaneda H, et al.Corrosion of carbon steel C1010 in the presence of iron oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans[J]. Corros. Sci., 2014, 89: 250
In this study, corrosion behaviors of carbon steel C1010 in the presence of an acidophilic, iron-oxidizing bacterial species Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans were examined. Results showed that A. ferrooxidans cells, with or without attaching to C1010 steel, accelerated its corrosion at a rate of 3–6× those of acidic water, at a pH of 2, without cells. A. ferrooxidans oxidized Fe2+ to Fe3+ as an energy source and the produced Fe3+ rapidly oxidized Fe0 to Fe2+ was proposed and verified as the reason. In addition, severe pitting corrosion was found on the C1010 steel surface in solutions containing A. ferrooxidans cells.
DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2014.09.005      URL     [本文引用:3]
[69] Starosvetsky J, Starosvetsky D, Pokroy B, et al.Electrochemical behaviour of stainless steels in media containing iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) by corrosion process modeling[J]. Corros. Sci., 2008, 50: 540
Localized corrosion mechanism of stainless steel (SS) types UNS S30403 and UNS 31603 in the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria Sphaerotilus spp. isolated from rust deposits was studied electrochemically. OCP transient, cyclic anodic and cathodic potentiodynamic polarization curves were measured on steel electrodes through their exposure to 3% NaCl solution supplemented with Sphaerotilus culture. The exposure period was composed of three parts: (a) 5 days incubation of steel electrodes in sterile 3% NaCl solution; (b) addition of 3 days-old Sphaerotilus culture to 3% NaCl at 3:2 v/v ratio with subsequent electrodes exposure for 11 days up to complete sedimentation of ferric oxides and (c) subsequent exposure of electrodes for 14 days in upper and bottom (sediments layer) fractions of the experimental medium. The results revealed an instantaneous gradual shift of the transient potential of both steels towards negative potentials from steady-state value of 610.15 V to 610.35 to 610.42 V (SCE) during the whole exposure interval since IOB culture addition into sterile 3% NaCl solution. No evidence of pitting corrosion was found on SS samples subsequent to their exposure to sterile 3% NaCl solution, though in the presence of IOB culture, numerous pits were revealed on 304 L steels specimens exposed to iron hydroxides sediments layer. Electrochemical characteristics (OCP or corrosion potential – E CORR, breakdown potential – E BD, repassivation potential – E RP, passivation current – i PASS) periodically measured by cyclic polarization method, allowed monitoring the electrochemical behavior changes of experimental SS and to establish the initiation of pitting corrosion in the presence of IOB, resulting in crevice effect caused by biogenic ferric oxides deposits precipitated on steel surface. Overall, steel 316L demonstrated higher resistance to pitting corrosion compared to 304L.
DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2007.07.008      URL     [本文引用:3]
[70] Liu H F, Zheng B J, Xu D D, et al.Effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron-oxidizing bacteria on the rate of corrosion of an aluminum alloy in a central air-conditioning cooling water system[J]. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2014, 53: 7840
The microbiologically influenced corrosion behaviors of the 3A21 aluminum alloy in Wuhan (Hubei Province, China) municipal potable water containing wild-type total culturable bacteria (TCB) at different temperatures were investigated by mass loss and surface morphology analysis. When the water was inoculated with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), laboratory results showed that SRB inhibited the mass loss-based rate of corrosion of the Al alloy coupons at 30 °C but accelerated the corrosion rate by 2- and 4.6-fold at 45 and 60 °C, respectively. It was also found that the presence of aerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria (IB) significantly reduced the corrosion rate at 45 °C. The average corrosion rate in water inoculated with enriched TCB was the highest, and it decreased at higher temperatures. At 60 °C, SRB were found to be the dominant bacteria in the water with TCB and in the water with IB.
DOI:10.1021/ie4033654      URL     [本文引用:1]
[71] Li S M, Wang Y Q, Liu J H, et al.Synergism effect of thiobacillus ferrooxidans and thioacillus thiooxidan on the corrosion behavior of steel Q235[J]. J. Chin. Soc. Corros. Prot., 2009, 29: 182
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(李松梅, 王彦卿, 刘建华. 氧化亚铁硫杆菌和氧化硫硫杆菌的协同作用对Q235钢腐蚀行为的影响[J]. 中国腐蚀与防护学报, 2009, 29: 182)
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[72] Sung E H, Han J S, Ahn C M, et al.Biological metal corrosion in saline systems by sulfur-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria[J]. Water Qual. Res. J., 2011, 46: 321
Abstract This study investigated whether any possible bio-corrosion of pumps could occur when operating underground pumping stations in coastal regions. Groundwater in the stations was found to contain Leptothrix sp. (iron-oxidizing bacteria, IOB) and Desulfovibrio sp. (sulfur-reducing bacteria, SRB). Four different metal specimens were exposed to saline water media, where Leptothrix sp. or Desulfovibrio sp. were inoculated solely or together. The result showed that IOB not only provoke the corrosion of galvanized and stainless steels but also accelerate (by 5-10 times) the formation of zinc/iron precipitates. The SRB specifically mediated the corrosion of zinc steel to a greater extent than the IOB. In a single medium, STS 304, galvanized steel, iron and zinc steel resisted corrosion in that order. However, in the mixed culture, the metals were corroded by a factor of 2-7 more than in the single medium. On disinfection, a higher NaOCl concentration surprisingly caused increased chemical corrosion, and UV light scattering due to corrosion precipitates enhanced microbial corrosion. Consequently, the metals showed more biochemical corrosion than the control, especially in a mixed culture. In particular, the level of STS 304 corrosion was significantly higher in the presence of microbes than the control.
DOI:10.2166/wqrjc.2011.009      URL     [本文引用:1]
[73] Duan Y, Li S M, Du J, et al.Corrosion behavior of Q235 Steel in the presence of Pseudomonas and iron bacteria[J]. Acta Phys.-Chim. Sin., 2010, 26: 3203
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(段冶, 李松梅, 杜娟. Q235钢在假单胞菌和铁细菌混合作用下的腐蚀行为[J]. 物理化学学报, 2010, 26: 3203)
采用腐蚀失重法、电化学阻抗谱(EIS)和表面分析技术研究了Q235钢在假单胞菌和铁细菌共同作用下的腐蚀行为.结果表明:与单种菌相比,两种菌混合作用下Q235钢腐蚀受到了抑制.混菌体系中金属电极自腐蚀电位升高,腐蚀电流密度减小,交流阻抗值随时间增大.扫描电子显微镜(SEM)分析结果表明混合菌体系中Q235钢表面形成了均匀致密的腐蚀产物膜.
DOI:10.3866/PKU.WHXB20101221      URL    
[74] Gu C X, Yu Y, Ji G J, et al.Corrosion behavior of 304 stainless steel under the combination action of mixed bacteria[J]. Ship Eng., 2011, 33(4): 100
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(顾彩香, 于阳, 吉桂军. 304不锈钢在混合菌种共同作用下的腐蚀行为[J]. 船舶工程, 2011, 33(4): 100)
利用间歇式方法培养海水中硫酸盐还原菌和需钠弧菌,采用自腐蚀电位、极化曲线、冷场扫描电镜观察等方法,研究了304不锈钢在硫酸盐还原菌和需钠弧菌共同作用下的腐蚀电化学行为,分析了东海中的微生物腐蚀特征和机理.结果表明:硫酸盐还原菌和需钠弧菌在混合培养过程中相互促进生长,在混合微生物介质中的腐蚀速率大于在单一微生物中的腐蚀速率;混合微生物的共同作用使微生物膜加大加厚以及产生更多的腐蚀产物和代谢物,加速了不锈钢钝化膜的溶解,进而加速了304不锈钢表面的点蚀.
[75] Sheng X X, Ting Y P, Pehkonen S O.The influence of sulphate-reducing bacteria biofilm on the corrosion of stainless steel AISI 316[J]. Corros. Sci., 2007, 49: 2159
This work investigates microbially-influenced corrosion (MIC) of stainless steel AISI 316 by two sulphate-reducing bacteria, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and a local marine isolate. The biofilm and pit morphology that developed with time were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results were interpreted with an equivalent circuit to model the physicoelectric characteristics of the electrode/biofilm/solution interface. D. desulfuricans formed one biofilm layer on the metal surface, while the marine isolate formed two layers: a biofilm layer and a ferrous sulfide deposit layer. AFM images corroborated results from the EIS modeling which showed biofilm attachment and subsequent detachment over time.
DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2006.10.040      URL     [本文引用:1]
[76] Heidelberg J F, Seshadri R, Haveman S A, et al.The genome sequence of the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris hildenborough[J]. Nat. Biotechnol., 2004, 22: 554
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[77] Little B J, Gerke T L, Lee J S.Mini-review: The morphology, mineralogy and microbiology of accumulated iron corrosion products[J]. Biofouling, 2014, 30: 941
Despite obvious differences in morphology, substratum chemistry and the electrolyte in which they form, accumulations of iron corrosion products have the following characteristics in common: stratification of iron oxides/hydroxides with a preponderance of 伪-FeOOH (goethite) and accumulation of metals. Bacteria, particularly iron-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria have been identified in some accumulations. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms have been used to rationalize observations for particular sets of environmental data. This review is the first to compare observations and interpretations.
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[78] Yi W, Zhang D, Liu H Q, et al.Influence of sulphate-reducing bacteria on environmental parameters and marine corrosion behavior of Q235 steel in aerobic conditions[J]. Electrochim. Acta, 2010, 55: 1528
The growth cycle of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), -saturated culture solutions) and anaerobic (N saturated culture solutions) conditions were investigated. Oxygen dissolved in the culture solutions induced slow growth and fast decay of SRB. The growth process of SRB under anaerobic and aerobic conditions influenced sulphide anion concentration (s2鈭), pH, and conductivity (). The values of s2鈭 and under aerobic conditions were lower than those under anaerobic conditions, and the pH values increased from O- to air- to N-saturated culture solutions. Aerobic conditions induced the open circuit potential () to shift in the positive direction after the stationary phase of SRB growth. The charge transfer resistance () increased quickly during the exponential growth phase, almost maintained stability during the stationary phase, and decreased after the stationary phase in all three conditions, and the impedance magnitude decreased from O- to air- to N-saturated culture solutions. The biofilms induced by SRB were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was performed in abiotic and SRB-containing systems to distinguish the corrosion products. The reasons for the effects of SRB on the environmental parameters and corrosion behavior of carbon steel are discussed.
DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2009.10.009      URL     [本文引用:1]
[79] Xu D K, Gu T Y.Carbon source starvation triggered more aggressive corrosion against carbon steel by the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm[J]. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 2014, 91: 74
61We demonstrate that starved Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilms are more aggressive.61Carbon starvation increases carbon steel weight loss caused by D.02vulgaris.61Moderate carbon starvation causes deepest pits.61Severe carbon starvation causes broader but shallower pits.61Extreme carbon starvation reduces weight loss due to severely weakened biofilm.
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[80] Qin X.Study on the corrosion behavior and microbial influence for Q235 Steel in Zhoushan seawater [D]. Tianjin: Tianjin University, 2007
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(戚欣. Q235钢在舟山海域的腐蚀行为及微生物影响的研究 [D]. 天津: 天津大学, 2007)
[81] Gomez-Smith C K, LaPara T M, Hozalski R M. Sulfate reducing bacteria and mycobacteria dominate the biofilm communities in a chloraminated drinking water distribution system[J]. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2015, 49: 8432
The quantity and composition of bacterial biofilms growing on ten water mains from a full-scale chloraminated water distribution system were analyzed using real-time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and next-generation, high-throughput Illumina sequencing. Water mains with corrosion tubercles supported the greatest amount of bacterial biomass (n = 25; geometric mean = 2.5 脳 107 copies cm-2), which was significantly higher (P = 0.04) than cement-lined cast-iron mains (geometric mean = 2.0 脳 106 copies cm-2). Despite spatial variation of community composition and bacterial abundance in water main biofilms, the communities on the interior main surfaces were surprisingly similar, containing a core group of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to only 17 different genera. Bacteria from the genus Mycobacterium dominated all communities at the main wall-bulk water interface (25% to 78% of the community), regardless of main age, estimated water age, main material, and the presence of corrosion products. Fur...
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[82] Mansouri H, Alavi S A, Fotovat M.Microbial-influenced corrosion of corten steel compared with carbon steel and stainless steel in oily wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa[J]. JOM, 2015, 67: 1594
The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2聽g nutrient broth in 1聽L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2聽weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.
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[83] Yin F.The synthesis and performance study of environment friendly bis-quaternary ammonium salt [D]. Xi’an: Shaanxi Normal University, 2008
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[84] Li F X, Wang Z K, Liu H L, et al.The pipeline corrosion induced by bacteria and sterilization experiments[J]. Oil-Gas Field Surf. Eng., 2014, 33(9): 22
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在注采管网中细菌种类繁多,对设备能造成腐蚀的细菌有硫酸盐还原菌(SRB)、黏泥生成菌(TGB)、铁细菌、硫细菌等,其中腐蚀最严重、危害最大的是硫酸盐还原菌和腐生菌。目前油田使用的杀菌剂主要有氧化性杀菌剂、非氧化性杀菌剂、复合型杀菌剂、水不溶性杀菌剂、多功能杀菌剂5大类。实验筛选的T—S03杀菌剂杀菌效果好,当其加药浓度为80 mg/L时,脱出水中硫酸盐还原菌及腐生菌几乎被完全杀除,同时其具有一定缓蚀性,适合现场应用。
[85] Liu H F, Qin S, Chen B, et al.An amino acid agent used to strip biofilm [P]. Chin.Pat., 103734133A, 2014
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合成了两种新型季盐型缓蚀杀菌剂 (BHP - 1、BHP - 2 ) ,并用红外光谱对其结构进行解析 .结果表明这类缓蚀杀菌剂能抑制SRB的生长、抑制微生物腐蚀的发展 .失重法和绝迹稀释法对药剂的缓蚀杀菌效果评价结果都证明BHP - 1缓蚀及杀菌效果最佳 ,且BHP - 1和BHP - 2缓蚀杀菌性能均优于工业上广泛应用的新洁尔灭
[87] Xu J J, Hu Z Q, Zhao Y L, et al.The bactericide of acidthiobacillus ferroxidans in acid coal waste piles[J]. China Min. Mag., 2014, 23(1): 62
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[89] Liu H F, Yang H X, Huang L, et al.An environmentally friendly bromine-based bactericide and its antibacterial and anticorrosion performance[J]. Mater. Prot., 2008, 41(7): 18
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[90] Wen J, Zhao K L, Gu T Y, et al.A green biocide enhancer for the treatment of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilms on carbon steel surfaces using glutaraldehyde[J]. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., 2009, 63: 1102
Generally speaking, a much higher concentration of biocide is needed to treat biofilms compared to the dosage used to for planktonic bacteria. With increasing restrictions of environmental regulations and safety concerns on large-scale biocide uses such as oil field applications, it is highly desirable to make more effective use of biocides. In this paper a green biocide enhancer ethylenediaminedisuccinate (EDDS) that is a biodegradable chelator, was found to enhance the efficacy of glutaraldehyde in its treatment of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilms. Experiments were carried out in 100聽ml anaerobic vials with carbon steel coupons. The ATCC 14563 strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was used. Biofilms on coupon surfaces were visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental results showed that EDDS reduced the glutaraldehyde dosages considerably in the inhibition of SRB biofilm establishment and the treatment of established biofilms on carbon steel coupon surfaces.
DOI:10.1016/j.ibiod.2009.09.007      URL     [本文引用:1]
[91] Wen J, Zhao K, Gu T, et al.Chelators enhanced biocide inhibition of planktonic sulfate-reducing bacterial growth[J]. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2010, 26: 1053
Biocides are currently the primary mitigation method to control sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in biofouling, reservoir souring and microbiologically influenced corrosion. Increasingly restrictive environmental regulations and safety concerns on biocide uses demand more efficient dosing of biocides. Chelators have been known to enhance antibiotics because of their properties such as increasing the permeability of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Two readily biodegradable chelators, ethylenediaminedisuccinate (EDDS) and N -(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (HEIDA) disodium salts that are touted as potential replacements of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), were evaluated as potential biocide enhancers for glutaraldehyde and tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) in their inhibition of planktonic SRB growth. Desulfovibrio vulgaris ATCC 7757 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 14563 were grown in modified ATCC 1249 medium and in enriched artificial seawater, respectively. Laboratory tests in 100聽ml anaerobic vials showed that EDDS or HEIDA alone did not inhibit SRB growth. However, when EDDS or HEIDA was combined with glutaraldehyde or THPS, each of them enhanced the biocide inhibition of planktonic SRB growth.
DOI:10.1007/s11274-009-0269-y      URL     [本文引用:1]
[92] Schultz T P, Nicholas D D.Development of environmentally-benign wood preservatives based on the combination of organic biocides with antioxidants and metal chelators[J]. Phytochemistry, 2002, 61: 555
Wood extractives can be envisaged to protect heartwood by at least three different mechanisms, i.e. fungicide, free radical scavengers/antioxidants and as metal chelators. In short-term laboratory decay tests using two different wood species and decay fungi, the combination of different organic fungicides with various antioxidants and/or metal chelators gave enhanced activity as compared to the organic biocide alone, with the best results usually obtained with all three compounds. Outdoor ground-contact stakes treated with a biocide and antioxidant combination and exposed for 30 months also gave enhanced protection against both decay fungi and termites. It was concluded that the combination of an organic biocide with metal chelating and/or antioxidant additives gives enhanced protection to wood against fungi as compared to the biocide alone and, consequently, it may be possible to develop environmentally-benign wood preservative systems based on this idea.
DOI:10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00267-4      PMID:12409022      URL     [本文引用:1]
[93] Xu D, Wen J, Fu W, et al.D-amino acids for the enhancement of a binary biocide cocktail consisting of THPS and EDDS against an SRB biofilm[J]. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2012, 28: 1641
Abstract-amino acids may be useful in the control of microbial biofilms. A -amino acid mixture with equimolar -tyrosine, -methionine, -tryptophan and -leucine was tested in this work for their enhancement of a biocide cocktail containing tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS) and ethylenediamine-,’-disuccinic acid (EDDS). -amino acid mixture (with equimolar -tyrosine, -methionine, -tryptophan and -leucine) was far more effective than THPS and EDDS alone and their binary combination. The triple biocide cocktail effectively prevented SRB biofilm establishment and removed the established SRB biofilm. The -amino acid mixture alone did not show significant effects in the two tasks even at 66002ppm.
DOI:10.1007/s11274-011-0970-5      PMID:22805946      URL     [本文引用:1]
[94] Xu D, Li Y, Gu T.D-methionine as a biofilm dispersal signaling molecule enhanced tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate mitigation of Desulfovibrio Vulgaris biofilm and biocorrosion pitting[J]. Mater. Corros., 2014, 65: 837
Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). It is often caused by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilms. More effective biocide treatment methods are desired due to environmental regulations and increasing costs. Recently, several publications revealed that some D -amino acids are signaling molecules for bacterial biofilm dispersal. In this work, tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) was combined with D -methionine for the mitigation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (ATCC 7757) biofilm in the full ATCC 1249 medium and a modified medium with only four ingredients, i.e., magnesium sulfate, sodium lactate, ferrous ammonium sulfate hexahydrate, and yeast extract at concentrations 1/4 of those in the full medium, as well as MIC pitting of C1018 carbon steel. D -Methionine alone even at a concentration of 100065ppm w/w and 5065ppm (active concentration) THPS alone were both found ineffective. However, a synergistic biocide combination consisting of 5065ppm THPS and 10065ppm D -methionine was highly effective and even better than 50065ppm THPS used alone. Although D -methionine alone has no biocidal effects, its biofilm dispersal effect can convert sessile cells to planktonic cells under a biocide stress. This is very useful in biofilm treatment because planktonic cells are much easier to treat than sessile cells using biocides.
DOI:10.1002/maco.201206894      URL     [本文引用:1]
[95] Xu D, Li Y, Gu T.A synergistic d-tyrosine and tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate biocide combination for the mitigation of an SRB biofilm[J]. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2012, 28: 3067
Abstract-tyrosine and some other -amino acids may signal biofilm dispersal. Experimental results in this work indicated that -tyrosine is an effective biocide enhancer for tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) that is a green biocide. -tyrosine alone and 5002ppm THPS alone were both ineffective against the SRB biofilm. However, when 102ppm -tyrosine was combined with 5002ppm THPS, the synergy between the two chemicals successfully prevented the establishment of the SRB biofilm on C1018 mild steel coupon surfaces in batch treatment tests. It also eradicated established SRB biofilms from coupon surfaces in both 1 and 3-h shock treatment tests.
DOI:10.1007/s11274-012-1116-0      PMID:22806745      URL     [本文引用:1]
[96] Duan Y, Yu F, Zhao D, et al.The inhibition performance of a new imidazoline derivative for mild steel in an oil and gas field[J]. Pet. Sci. Technol., 2013, 31: 1959
The inhibition performance of a new imidazoline derivative for mild steel in CO2/H2S saturated 5% NaCl solution at 60掳C were investigated by using weight loss method, and the surface analysis of mild steel was performed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Results showed that the inhibitor could inhibit the corrosion of mild steel in simulation solution significantly. Its adsorption on the metal surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The inhibitor could form the product film on the metal surface by adsorption, which brought on high protection performance for mild steel.
DOI:10.1080/10916466.2011.553653      URL     [本文引用:1]
[97] Lv Z L, Qiu Y B, Guo X P.Effect of pH value on the adsorption behavior and inhibition mechanism of dodecylamine on carbon steel[J]. Acta Phys.-Chim. Sin., 2008, 24: 243
The effect of pH value on the adsorption behavior and inhibition mechanism of dodecylamine for carbon dioxide corrosion of carbon steel was investigated by electrochemical methods and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the pH value of the solution played the crucial role to the adsorption behavior and inhibition mechanism of dodecylamine. The inhibition performance of dodecylamine on carbon steel was dependent on the pH value and the inhibition efficiency increased with the increase of pH value. At pH 4.9, dodecylamine mainly inhibited the cathode process of the corrosion. The adsorption energy of dodecylamine on the metal surface was lower. The adsorption of dodecylamine on the metal surface was not stable and an anode desorption phenomenon could be observed. Hence, dodecylamine did not provide effective inhibition to the corrosion. While at pH 6.9, it had much higher adsorption energy. Dodecylamine adsorbed on the metal surface tightly and formed the effective diffusion barrier which inhibited both the cathode and anode processes effectively.
DOI:10.1016/S1872-1508(08)60013-3      URL     [本文引用:1]
[98] Chen G, Zhang M, Zhao J R, et al.Investigation of Ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and oil field microorganism inhibitors[J]. Chem. Central J., 2013, 7: 83
Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated.
DOI:10.1186/1752-153X-7-83      PMID:23651921      URL     [本文引用:1]
[99] Zhang F, Liu H W, Chen B, et al.Research on the long-lasting of imidazoline inhibition in CO2-saturated and SRB simulated sewage[J]. J. Chin. Soc. Corros. Prot., 2015, 35: 156
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(张帆, 刘宏伟, 陈碧. CO2和SRB共存产出水中咪唑啉衍生物的环境行为及缓蚀长效性研究[J]. 中国腐蚀与防护学报, 2015, 35: 156)
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[100] Wu Y N, Zhang F, Liu H W, et al.Corrosion inhibition performance of lauric acid and thiourea for carbon steel in a CO2-saturated and SRB-containing artificial sewage[J]. Corros. Sci. Prot. Technol., 2015, 27: 219
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[101] Moradi M, Duan J Z, Du X Q.Investigation of the effect of 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one inhibition on the corrosion of carbon steel in Bacillus sp. inoculated artificial seawater[J]. Corros. Sci., 2013, 69: 338
The antibacterial activity and corrosion inhibition effect of 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one is studied for carbon steel immersed in artificial seawater. Results showed that this compound produced a good antibacterial activity against the metal-oxidizing bacteria. Also the electrochemical studies indicated that it totally owned a very good inhibition effect in artificial seawater with and without bacteria. Equivalent circuits have two time constants in the presence of biocide, which suggests that an adsorption layer is produced on the metal surface and thickened by varying the exposure time, as two maxima could be observed in the Bode phase plots after 12h.
DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2012.12.017      URL     [本文引用:1]
[102] Strašák L, Vetterl V R, Šmarda J.Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on bacteria Escherichia coli[J]. Bioelectrochemistry, 2002, 55: 161
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[104] Kohno M, Yamazaki M, Kimura I I, et al.Effect of static magnetic fields on bacteria: Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli[J]. Pathophysiology, 2000, 7: 143
Biological effect of static magnetic field was investigated by using ferrite magnets to conduct a magnetic field exposure experiment on three species of bacteria: Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The effects were evaluated by culturing the bacteria and determining their growth rate, the maximum numbers of bacteria, and [ 3H]-thymidine incorporation. The results showed that the ferrite magnet caused strength-dependent decreases in the growth rate and growth maximum number of bacteria for S. mutans and S. aureus when cultured under anaerobic conditions, but that their growth was not inhibited under aerobic conditions. In addition, [ 3H]-thymidine was added after culturing each of the species of bacteria for 18 h. After that, culture was continued until 24 h, and changes in [ 3H]-thymidine incorporation were investigated. But no effect of the magnetic fields was detected. These findings suggested that oxygen related to growth the cases of S. mutans, S. aureus. However, no growth effects were detected on E. coli cultures.
DOI:10.1016/S0928-4680(00)00042-0      PMID:10927195      URL     [本文引用:1]
[105] Hinds G, Coey J, Lyons M E G. Influence of magnetic forces on electrochemical mass transport[J]. Electrochem. Commun., 2001,3: 215
Enhancements of the order of 100% in the mass transport limited current for electrodeposition have been observed in magnetic fields of order 1 T. The effect of the field is to induce convection in the solution and it is equivalent to rotating the electrode or stirring the solution. In this communication, a quantitative comparison is made of the magnitude of various body forces which have been proposed to account for the experimentally observed effects, with a view to identifying the likely source of the field enhancement. When the magnetic field is uniform, the Lorentz force and the electrokinetic force both contribute significantly to the field enhancement.
DOI:10.1016/S1388-2481(01)00136-9      URL     [本文引用:1]
[106] Leventis N, Dass A.Demonstration of the elusive concentration-gradient paramagnetic force[J]. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127: 4988
Using classical electrochemistry, it is demonstrated that the concentration-gradient paramagnetic force, FnablaC, is a body force proportional to |B|2 acting parallel to the concentration gradient of electrogenerated radicals. FnablaC can balance gravity, holding volumes of solution wherein mass transfer continues to take place by diffusion. In contrast to usual levitation forces, FnablaC does not depend on field gradients and may be present even in homogeneous magnetic fields. Understanding the properties of FnablaC is relevant to magnetic confinement and levitation and is speculated even to propulsion with objects having permanent susceptibility gradients.
DOI:10.1021/ja043169b      PMID:15810811      URL     [本文引用:1]
[107] Sueptitz R, Tschulik K, Uhlemann M, et al.Effect of high gradient magnetic fields on the anodic behaviour and localized corrosion of iron in sulphuric acid solutions[J]. Corros. Sci., 2011, 53: 3222
The influence of high gradient magnetic fields on the anodic dissolution of iron in sulphuric acid solutions and the localization of the corrosion attack is investigated by means of potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization experiments and subsequent surface profile analysis. A localization of the material loss is observed in every potential region of the anodic Fe dissolution except from the passive region. The impact of the magnetic field on the anodic current density and the localization of the corrosion attack are explained by the action of the Lorentz force and the magnetic field gradient force.Highlights? Impact of on anodic current density and corrosion localization. ? Anodic Tafel region: high dissolution in regions of high . ? Transition and prepassive region: reduced rim effect by magnetic field. ? No magnetic field effect on the passive state.
DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2011.05.070      URL     [本文引用:1]
[108] Fojt L, Vetterl V.Electrochemical evaluation of extremely-low frequency magnetic field effects on sulphate-reducing bacteria[J]. Folia Biol., 2012, 58: 44
Abstract The effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields on sulphate- reducing bacteria viability were studied electrochemically. Two types of graphite electrodes (pyrolytic and glassy carbon) covered with whole bacterial cells behind a dialysis membrane were used for electrochemical measurements. We found about 15% decrease of reduction peak current density (which indicates desulphurization activity of the bacterial cells - their metabolic activity) on cyclic voltammograms after magnetic field exposure compared to the control samples. We suppose that the magnetic field does not influence the metabolic activity (desulphurization) of sulphate-reducing bacteria but most probably causes bacterial death.
DOI:10.1155/2012/914843      PMID:22464824      URL     [本文引用:1]
[109] Fojt L, Strašák L, Vetterl V.Extremely-low frequency magnetic field effects on sulfate reducing bacteria viability[J]. Electrom. Biol. Med., 2010, 29: 177
5065Hz magnetic fields effects on Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) viability were studied by colony forming units (CFU) counting. We found a 15% decrease of CFU number after magnetic field exposure (B=7.165mT, f=5065Hz, t=2465min) compared to the control samples. These results are in good agreement with our previous work on other bacterial strains. The magnetic field effects on SRB are relatively large for small magnetic fields. The data correlations have been subjected to a simple physical chemical analysis, yielding surprisingly large estimates for the characteristic magnetic reaction susceptibility, even when the entire bacterium is assumed to be the direct target of interaction of the magnetic ac fields for the exposures in the time range from 3-2465 min.
DOI:10.3109/15368378.2010.513304      PMID:20923330      URL     [本文引用:1]
[110] Zheng B J, Li K J, Liu H F, et al.Effects of magnetic fields on microbiologically influenced corrosion of 304 stainless steel[J]. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2014, 53: 48
The effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on the corrosion of 304 stainless steel (SS304) caused by oil-field sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were investigated. Experimental data showed that the MF lowered the population of planktonic SRB by almost 4 orders of magnitude and delayed the formation of SRB biofilms on the SS304 coupons. The mass losses and surface images of the coupons indicated that the application of an MF considerably reduced the pitting corrosion of SS304. EDX and XPS analyses of the coupon surfaces demonstrated that the main corrosion products without an MF and with 2 and 4 mT MFs were FeS, FeO, and Fe2O3, respectively. The application of MFs could be an environmentally friendly method for mitigating microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) on SS304.
DOI:10.1021/ie402235j      URL     [本文引用:1]
[111] Costa I, Oliveira M C L, de Melo H G, et al. The effect of the magnetic field on the corrosion behavior of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets[J]. J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 2004, 278: 348
The effect of magnetic field on the corrosion behavior of an Nd–Fe–B magnet has been investigated in a naturally aerated 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. Experimentally, the study was carried out by weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The results have shown an evident effect of the magnetization state on the corrosion behavior of the Nd–Fe–B specimens. Magnetized specimens exhibited larger weight losses than non-magnetized ones. The difference in the specimens’ corrosion rates were ascribed to the effect of the magnetic field on the transport of oxygen in the solution to the magnet/electrolyte interface, evidenced in the high-frequency response of the impedance diagrams, and to the adherence of particles to the magnetized specimens’ surface due to magnetic field. Attempts have been made to explain the corrosion behavior observed for magnetized and non-magnetized sintered magnets.
DOI:10.1016/j.jmmm.2003.12.1320      URL     [本文引用:1]
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关键词(key words)
铁氧化菌
微生物腐蚀
生物膜
胞外聚合物
协同腐蚀

iron oxidizing bacteria
microbiologically influen...
biofilm
extracellular polymeric s...
synergic corrosion

作者
刘宏伟
刘宏芳

LIU Hongwei
LIU Hongfang